Toplu Konut Alan Düzenlemelerinde Sert Zemin Ve Yeşil Alan Oranlarının Saptanmasında Ayardımcı Bir Araştırma - Ataşehir Örneği

Persentili, H. Çağatay
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Ataşehir Uydukent Yerleşmesi 2. Etap konut alanlarındaki açık alan kullanımları ve bu alanlardaki sert zemin - yeşil alan oranlarının, belli standartlarda incelenip, kullanılabilirliği üzerinde durulan bu araştırma altı bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde konu genel olarak tanıtılmış, araştırmanın amacı, kapsamı ve yöntemi belirtilmiştir. İkinci bölümde toplu konut olgusunun tanımı ile birlikte ülkemizde toplu konut olgusunun tarihsel gelişimi ele alınmış, ülkemizde toplu konut uygulamalarına öncülük eden Türkiye Emlak Bankası'nın konut üretim faaliyetleri belirtilmiş, son yıllarda hızla artan Uydukent olgusunun tanımı ve gelişimi üzerinde durulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde Ataşehir Uydukent Yerleşmesi öncelikle genel olarak incelenmiştir. Yerleşmenin Anadolu Yakası'ndaki konumu, mekan oluşumunu belirleyen verileri, planlama kararları, arazi kullanımı ve yerleşmenin açık alan sistemi, Ataşehir Uydukent yerleşimi bütün halinde incelenerek ele alınmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde genelden özele inilerek, tamamlanan bazı 2. etap konut yapı adaları, çevre düzenlemeleri, açık alan kullanımları, sert zemin - yeşil alan oranları ele alınmış ve anket çalışması yapılmak üzere incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde anket çalışmasının kapsamı ve yöntemi belirtilmiştir. Ataşehir Uydukent Yerleşmesi 2. Etap konut alanlarında anket görüşmesi yapılmadan önce birtakım hipotezler ortaya konmuş ve anket değerlendirmeleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Yapılan anket görüşmelerin sonuçları doğrultusunda ailelerin sosyal yapısı, açık alanların kullanılabilirliği, bitkisel tasarım hakkındaki görüşler ve beklentiler üzerinde durulmuştur. Altıncı ve son bölüm olan sonuç ve öneriler bölümünde ise, araştırmayı yönlendiren tespitler, açık alanların kullanımı ve anket sonuçlarından elde edilen değerlendirmelerle, Ataşehir Uydukent Yerleşmesi açık alanlarındaki fonksiyonların oranlarının standartlara uygunluğu ve seçilen bitki türlerinin doğruluğunun olumlu ve olumsuz yönlerine değinilmiştir.
The main reason of this study, comprising of six chapters, is to investigate the usage of the open areas and the ratio of the firm soil green belt areas on Ataşehir Satellite Town Second Stage Housing Areas. Green areas share great importance for people that they can leave in peace, comfort and health. After 1950s, urbanization in cities especially in Istanbul started to grow in a disorganized way. As a result of this it is determined that green areas are reduced in quantity and even destroyed step by step. People struggle to maintain their lives in Istanbul where there are major environmental problems like air and noise pollution. Because of these difficulties and aspiration to green fields, people suffering from urbanization left cities and ran to the long destinations. For people could live in peace and green fields to be the very essence of the scenery and social, cultural needs to be provided were first being realized within mass housings, afterwards within satellite notion. Interest for these areas, where people are provided to be within a medium away from air and noise pollution, and are served the whole care, education, trade, administrative, social, cultural needs, is growing rapidly day by day. Parents aiming at growing their children within the best medium, prefer places providing the best standard needs. Satellites which seized these standards are preferred by people as aspired cities. Nowadays, enterprising companies, construction companies and some public banks have to provide people some level of their living standards and occupations which isolate people from the complete negative sides of urban life. Our research evoking from this idea aims at going into details open areas of mass housing islands at Ataşehir Satellite Settlement and usability, sufficiency of these projects on these areas and as a result of application of these projects data received after making ratios between firm soil and green belts, affect of the plant types used to the settlement researched. This project as a priority points to the notion of mass housing & satellite and satellites' formation & application received hitherto. Ataşehir Satellite Settlement as a sample to our research first modified in global terms, then open areas' usage and ratios are determined in variety of examples from 2nd Graded Mass Housing which are already completed in application. These details are combined with the evaluations received from investigation deals and also evaluated on sufficiency terms. The helping sample taken as an application project to the mass housing settlement, aimed as a real means for calculating ratios between firm soil and green belts is Ataşehir Satellite Project which is determined as a quite successful application. This research mainly comprises of six chapters and the priority is given to the description and application of mass housing. Afterwards, we searched for the convenience of this project to the standards estimated, with the help of certain sample islands on one of the most suitable settlement Ataşehir, where there is given ratios of firm soil and green belts. In order to evaluate users' expectations and wishes in parallel terms we have done studies of investigations. After evaluating investigations the data received out of investigations & the result received from the whole research is explained in details and we received very good ratios for firm soil & green belts that we could be able to pronounce Ataşehir Satellite Settlement as one of unique samples for a well planned satellite settlement. First chapter gives a global outlook of the subject, and mentions about the goal, concept and method of the investigation. Second chapter starting with the description of the mass-housing phenomenon makes a review of breakdown for mass-housing phenomenon in our country, in addition to this mentions about the current housing building activities done by the leader of several applications of mass-housings that is Türkiye Emlak Bankası..This chapter also points out to the description and improvement of rapidly increasing Satellite Phenomenon within recent years. Third chapter is evaluating the Ataşehir Satellite Town first in global terms then location on Annotation side, datas determining the place of constitution, planning decisions held, territory usage and open area system. Forth chapter is evaluating some of the completed Second Stage Housing building islands, environmental regulations, open area usage, ratio of firm soil - green belt and is ending with surveys. Fifth chapter is indicating extent and method of survey studies. Before surveying on Ataşehir Satellite Town Second Stage residence areas first hypothesis are constructed then compared with the survey evaluations. Due to the datas received with regard to the surveying, chapter figures about social status of families, usage of open areas, thoughts and expectations about botanical designs. Sixth and the last chapter serving suggestions is pointing out to Ataşehir Satellite functions' ratios to the standards and positive & negative sides of the selected plant types. This is done with the help of datas routing the investigation, usage of open areas and evaluations determined out of results of several surveys. Nowadays people are suffering with the noise and air pollution and searching for new places where they want to breath till the last point of their lungs. But when the only solution appears to leave medium they are living they retreat because the place they intend live has to be out of the working environment they are occupied with. What people need is to live in a medium carrying clean air and silent & peaceful environment surrounded with green belts and also having no problem with the transportation, plus having rich sources where they can find whatever is needed to maintain with their lives. Ataşehir Satellite Town is the most detailed chance people can easily live facing with the expectations required. Mass-houses are planned to provide maximum facility with reasonable expectations per individuals. Mass-houses provide housing areas to the lower - income groups and present maximum facilities in harmonic organization. This helps to protect natural areas where urban areas are rapidly increasing with no green belts and view around. Emlak Bankası sourcing funds to the cooperatives also puts signatures on big Mass-Housing and Satellite Projects. People were buying or renting apartment just to use it as a shelter but after cities became hard places to live not only because of air pollution but also noise pollution evoked the need of Satellite Town and Mass Housing. Those days were easy to live. But nowadays people are thinking about how they can rescue themselves from these pollution and demolish the obstruct shortening their lives. Mass- housing evoked from one of this kind of thought. Ataşehir Satellite Town Settlement, which is chosen as the research area, is located on the Annotation side of Istanbul Metropolitan Area in the borders of Kadıköy Municipality, in Yeni Sahra Area, in the north - east of E-5 highway, north of Küçükbakkalköy and south - east of Mustafa Kemal district. It is about 12 km. from the city center, 800 m. from Ankara Asfaltı, 9 km. from Kadıköy and has an area of 4.500.000 m2. Free ways of 1st and 2nd. Bosphorus Bridges intersect and unit in Ataşehir area and continue as the Annotation free way. Emlak Bankası initiated the project of "Ataşehir Uydukent" in 1993. First stage was completed in 1993, Second stage housing area is build within the same year. Ataşehir Satellite Town project targets to have 18.000 dwelling with the population of 80.000 to help to solve the housing problem of Istanbul. In this project it is important to design high quality buildings with a high quality environment design. Ataşehir Satellite Town Project is a big project of progress, realized in Istanbul. This project takes into consideration elastic land-use and infrastructure decisions thinking there can be some changes in the future. In the northern and western part of the land, there are squatters houses, in the southern part, there areas for little crafts and for storage near the settlement, planned Mass-Houses are being built. Ataşehir has an important location since it is near the free ways and its the crucial point of the Annotation free way. It has a 6-level transportation system : free way, the main artery, secondary artery, main collector, secondary collector, community road and service road. This system serves both to Ataşehir settlement and to nearby settlements, so it makes the transportation easier for the road which as big junctions. The central areas of Ataşehir serve their urban service functions considering place, function, appearance and size. They also have an attractive characteristic so they lead people to these places. The central area consists of many storey buildings and it has two parts; east city center and West city center. There are commercial and administrative establishments, mixed usage areas which include commerce and housing and social housing in the central areas so they serve as collective center. The land use of Ataşehir consists of housing areas, social service facilities, open areas, green areas and other uses. Centers of neighborhood and primary school units are arranged in a way that they will be able to serve people who live at main transportation focus points. Therefore, a transportation and urban equipment is planned with different levels. Ataşehir as a helping example for calculating the ratio of firm soil - green belt of Mass - Housing is studied on 3 "city blocks" which are 45-46-50. The "city blocks" I studied on is carrying 348 housing and 1484 people. Total area is 45.097 m2. The 0.83 (37.607 m2) of it is open area, the 0.17 (7.490 m2) is the built area. 0.68 of open areas is green areas, the remaining part which is 0.32 is the kinder garden (401 m2), sports area (113 m2), resting area (118 m2), 5197 m2 of it is the pedestrian road, and of 6021 m2 is the open parking area. Parking lots are designed with 2 types ; underground and overground. There are 423 parking places and grass plague - stone which is used as flooring. Green area appears to be 0.17 m2 per person on my study research area where the green area of open area is 0.68 in total. %6 of green cover is Coniferous,%2 is Deciduous, %51 is Shrubs, %41 is Ground Covers. Ratio of trees per 100 m2 is 4.6 tree/ m2. Above mentioned results are evaluated out of surveys done with 30 people and the result came out to be the best of green area standards. Due to the result of the evaluations as mentioned above it is determined that rapidly increasing satellites within last few years are the most convenient open airs, green areas and firm soil ranges that can provide needs of people. Ataşehir Satellite Town,used as an example found very close to the ratios open airs aimed at and Ataşehir Satellite Town already a successful and a new satellite project will keep on maintaining its being a special satellite example for several years. Satellites especially intended to be built in Istanbul has to obey to the standards in order to be planned and be rich green area mediums.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Toplu konutlar, Yeşil alanlar, Zemin araştırmaları, stanbul-Ataşehir, Mass houses, Green areas, Ground inspections ; İstanbul-Ataşehir