Süreç özdeğerlendirilmesi için bir model önerisi

Demir, Barış
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
"Süreç özdeğerlendirmesi İçin Bir Model Önerisi" şirket çapında tüm yapılanmaları içine alan iş mükemmelliği modellerinin süreçler ile ilgili kısımlarının incelenmesinden sonra yapılan süreç özdeğerlendirmelerinin sürece yönelik iyileştirmeleri nasıl tetikleyebileceğini anlatmaktadır. Tezde öncelikle, süreçlerin şirket için öneminden bahsedilmekte ve süreçleri iyileştirmede kullanılan iki güncel yaklaşımdan bahsedilmektedir: değişim mühendisliği ve sürekli iyileştirmeler. Süreç Özdeğerlendirmesi genel anlamda şirketin kendi süreçlerini değerlendirmeye yöneliktir ve bu yöntemlerden özellikle ikincisine tetik oluşturmaktadır. Süreçlerin bu şekilde değerlendirilebilmesi için oluşturulan model, TÜSlAD-KalDer'in Kalite Büyük ödülü için kullandığı iş mükemmelliği modelinin süreçlerle ilgili bölümünü içermektedir. Ortaya konan özdeğerlendirme metodolojisi ise "anketlerle değerlendirme" yöntemini kullanmaktadır. Bu amaçla "Süreç Tanımlama Anketi" ve "iç Müşteri Memnuniyet Anketi" tasarlanmıştır. Ayrıca tezin son bölümünde ortaya konan "Süreç özdeğerlendirmesi için Model önerisi" Arçelik A.Ş. Malzeme Kaynakları Yönetim Süreci'ne uygulanmış ve sonuç olarak sürecin iyileştirilmesine yönelik çıkarımlarda bulunulmuştur.
Manufacturing industries and service businesses utilize organization transformation to meet the dynamic challenges and opportunities encountered in their operating environments. The environmental factors include global economics and markets, consumer preferences, demographic shifts, political and social pressures, regulatory and judicial decisions, public and employee safety, environmental regulation and rapid technology advancement. The most critical factors of all these are change management, customer satisfaction and loyalty and survival against the fierce competition. The success of any organization depends on the performance of each three elements which comprise the organization:. its products and services, i.e. its deliverables,. its business processes and the fabric which supports them,. its people, i.e. its employees and suppliers. Process are the essential link between the customer's or client's requirements and the delivery of products and services. They are the means whereby the organization and its employees fulfill their purpose or "mission". Rightly the measurement and improvement of business processes has been the focus of much attention for years. However the traditional function or department based approaches to process improvement frequently have failed to deliver the required gains in overall business performance. Today's cross functional approach to process management has its roots in the holistic approach to business performance improvement, known as Total Quality Management (TQM). The organization is viewed as a matrix of internal "customer / supplier" chains focused on the cost-effective satisfaction of aggreed client, or "external customer requirements. These internal customer / supplier chains cross departmental of functional boundaries; the processes which sustain them are cross-functional and become the strands which bind the organization together. The management and improvement of these cross functional business processes provides significant opportunities for improving business performance. Nowadays organizations are feeling the need to transform their organizational focal point to processes as shown in Table 1. XIII The subject of the master thesis is "A Model for Process Self-Assessment" which tells about how improvements in processes can be triggered. Firstly, importance of processes must be understood clearly to identify the methods in order to find out ways to check organizational systems. The need to create assessment approaches, is forced by the speed of change and the dynamic structure of the markets so the competitors. Process is simply defined as the batch of work parts which an input is transformed to an output. Many companies have seen that some of the functional departments are useless after a change towards process structure is made. As the time passes by, processes need changes to get through that day's requirements. Something has to tell the change time has come and what the change has to be. Companies uses methods to listen to the voice of processes; Critical Success Factors & Key Performance Indicators, Suggestion Systems etc. Self-assessment is an other method which can be very effective when it is made by the support of management in a proper way, periodically. In the thesis 'BPR (Business Process Reengineering)' and 'Continuous Improvement' are examined as the two major approaches, which define their own methods, used to improve business processes. BPR is first introduced in 1990 by Hammer, Davenport and Short. BPR involves the radical redesign of business processes with the aim of producing equally radical improvements in performance. Continuous Improvement, on the other hand XIV aims to improve process performance in order to meet customer requirements gradually through the usage of TQM. To find the reasons and start the improvement activities self-assessment is defined as an effective trigger. In order to make the assessment there must be a model or a checklist to advance through. So in the thesis the most popular three business models are examined; Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria, Deming Award Criteria, European Foundation For Quality Management Excellence Model. After a comparison between these three models the most advantageous of all appeared to be the European Foundation For Quality Management Model for Business Excellence. The reasons of the choice are:. Deming Award Criteria are forms a checklist not a model; so it is generally not enough to apply to a selected part of an organization.. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria were prepared after the Japanese success in worldwide markets. The criteria were changed many times to adapt the market needs; but there had been such cases as the award winners. European Foundation For Quality Management Model for Business Excellence is the latest one and defined in detail enough to apply to a selected part of an organization. Also in Turkey TÜSİAD (Turkish Businessmen Association) and KalDer (Quality Association) accepted the same excellence model with small changes in the criteria points. The EFQM Model helps organizations develop and manage their quality improvement activities in a number of ways:. it provides a definition and description of TQM which gives a better understanding of the concept, improves the awareness and generates ownership of TQM among senior managers,. it enables measurement of the process to be made, along with its benefits and outcomes,. the scoring criteria provide an objective measurement and help to pinpoint improvement opportunities,. benchmarking and organizational learning are facilitated,. training in TQM is encouraged. EFQM (European Foundation For Quality Management) definition of self- assessment is (SELF ASSESSMENT, 1997 GUIDELINES FOR COMPANIES, p.7);. Self Assessment is a comprehensive, systematic and regular review of an organisation's activities and results referenced against the EFQM Model for Business Excellence.. The Self Assessment process allows the organisation to discern clearly its strengths and areas in which improvements can be made and culminates in planned improvement actions which are then monitored for progress. XV There are many ways to make an assessment; award simulation approach, pro forma approach, matrix chart approach, workshop approach, questionnaire approach and peer involvement approach. These are the methods used to assess the whole organization through whole business excellence model. But in the thesis the fifth criterion (Processes) is used as a simple model to assess processes. According to the situation a comparison between approaches is made to make self-assessment and the questionnaire approach is selected with the advantages of:. Simple to use basic awareness training being sufficient to get things started.. Can readily involve many people within the organisation.. Presentation of outcomes is easy.. Easy to compute and understand the numerical results.. The questions asked can be customised to suit the organisation.. Provides a good introduction to Self-assessment.. Enables the organisation to receive feedback which can be segmented by function and by level.. Can be used in parallel with the workshop approach to provide a more balanced view of deployment for the management team.. Can be used to facilitate group discussions between teams on the opportunities for improvement within their unit. In order to collect data two kinds of questionnaire are prepared:. Process Definition Questionnaire,. Internal Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire. The thesis includes a practice of the self-assessment method through questionnaire. This practise is made in the 'Material Resources Management Process' of Arçelik A.Ş., Turkey's biggest white goods manufacturer. Arçelik's vision is to be one of Europe's five leading household appliances companies until the year 2005 and mission is to develop, produce, present and service household appliances which ease home life, which meet our customers' needs ahead of their expectations, which are easily purchased and used and which are reliable according to the values, goals and strategies of Koç community and to grow and develop continuously in the target markets with shareholders' satisfaction by providing customer loyalty and people satisfaction with using resources effectively. Material Resources Management Process is one of the key process which will enable Arçelik to reach her vision while fulfilling the commitments she has made in her mission statement. That is the reason why this process is chosen for application. XVI In the application, another questionnaire apart from the ones mentioned above is used: "Satisfaction from the Major Firm". The reason for that is the special position of the 'Material Resources Management Process'; the vendors are also the customers. The result are used as triggers to plan and implement improvement activities.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Süreç planlama, Süreç yönetimi, Process planning, Process management