Nasuh Paşa Medresesi ve Mescidi restorasyon projesi

dc.contributor.advisor Akın, Nur Türkoğlu, Kıvanç
dc.contributor.authorID 14401
dc.contributor.department Restorasyon 2023-02-24T10:58:05Z 2023-02-24T10:58:05Z 1991
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991 tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Nasuh Paşa Medresesi ve Mescidi; Aydın 'm Köprülü Mahallesi'nde, Gazi Bulvarı ve Çankaya Caddesi arasında, 42B-429 parseller üzerindeki "Nasuh Paşa Külliyesi" bünyesinde yer alan anıtsal yapıdır. Aynı külliye içinde medresenin doğusunda bir han ve batısında da bir hamam bulunur. Aydın' in mutasarrıflarından Osmanoğlu Nasuh Paşa'nın yaptırdığı külliyenin yapım tarihi 17DB (H.1120) dir. Bu bilgi binanın giriş kapısı üzerinde yer alan yazıttan ve külliyenin vakfiyesinden öğrenilmiştir. Yapının mimarı hakkında ise herhangi bir bilgi bulunamamıştır. Nasuh Paşa Medrese ve Mescidi 'nin tez konusu olarak seçilmesinin nedenlerini, rölöve çalşmalarını ve tarihi araştırmalarının aşamaları birinci bölüm içinde anlatılmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, Aydın İli'nin tarihi, Cumhuriyet döneminde il için hazırlanan imar planları ve çevre düzenlemeleri; külliyenin bünyesindeki diğer yapıların mimari tanımlamaları yazıt ve vakfiyele ri yer almaktadır. 3. bölümde tez konusu olarak seçilen Nasuh Paşa Medresesi ve Mescidi 'nin yapısal tanımlamaları yer almaktadır. 4. bölüm yapının benzerleriyle karşılaştırıldığı ve restitüsyona ait verilerin tespit edildiği bölümdür. Yapının çağdaşları ile karşılaştırılmasının yapıldığı bölüm, 5. bölümdür. 6. ve son bölüm ise, yapıların gerek kendi koşulları, gerekse de içinde yer aldıkları çevrenin özelliklerine bağlı olarak yeniden işlevlendirilmesi önerilerini kapsamaktadır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract The subject of this thesis is concerned with the restoration of Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid. These buildings are the parts of a complex, which are situated in a quarter called Köprülü in the city of Aydın. Apart from these buildings, there are also a hammam and a khan. The most devastated buildings of this complex are the madrasah and the masjid, which are chosen for the subject of this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to supply the madrasah and the masjid, to take their place in the history of Aydın again. The work consists of six chapters. The first chapter explains the reasons of choosing the Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid in Aydm as the subject of this thesis. The methods for the historical research and for the measurement and the apparatus, that are used, are also described in this chapter. Aydın city, which has been occupied by several cultures in the time being, has many historical and architectural peculiarities. Unfortunately a lot of monuments are destroyed utterly because of the earthquakes or fires. In addition to this, many of them are destroyed by the Greeks, who caused great damage when they were leaving the city during the Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı). Later, the development and increasement of the cities and the slums that are built as a result of the migration to the big cities accelerated the collapse of the monuments. Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid, which have the same problems, are the most ruined buildings of the complex. There is no serious work which has been done over these buildings. A present project has been drawn by E. Madran in 1967. Later, architect Emre Madran, who offered a thesis on the khan building of this complex to O.D.T.Ü., has also touched on the subject of the madrasah and masjid and prepared a restitution proposition in 1968. Unfortunately the restitution is not directly based on these buildings, so there are many mistakes as a result of unserious research. There are only two madrasahs left in Aydın, which have the chance of existing today and which have a great importance in the history of the city. They are Cihanoğlu and Nasuh Paşa Madrasahs. The number of the madrasahs in the yearbook dated on 130B MC/1B92 CC -xix- are 49. It mill be no surprise, if the Nasuh Paşa Madrasah becomes a total ruin in the future, because there seems no serious work that has been done. These reasons show definitely the necessity of a serious work. The second chapter is about the history of Aydın city and Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid. The historical life of Aydın city is shortly studied during the period of Seljuks and Ottoman Empire. The information about Aydın' s architecture is also collected from the writings of the travellers, who visited Aydın once upon a time. It has been learnt from the writings of Evliya Çelebi, Katip Çelebi, Ch. Texier, U. Cuinet and R.M. Riefstahl that timber material is used on a vast scale as a result of the earthquakes. This time, there appeared the danger of fire. Especially, the monuments are destroyed by the Greeks, who caused fire when leaving the city during the Turkish war of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı). During the preparations of the development plan of Aydın, after the empire has become a republic, it has been seen that Aydın has an organic 19th century city structure, There were blind alleys that prevent to reach to fire place, so it has been considered to change the old plan. According to the "Fire Place Plans", which were prepared in 1926, the gridiron plan system has begun to be used. The first streets are Hükümet Street and Gazi Paşa Boulevard. After the construction of Gazi Paşa Boulevard, which is situated at the south of Nasuh Paşa Complex, the quarter of Köprülü and its environment has begun to develop. Around Gazi Paşa Boulevard the number of storeys has increased and the entrance storeys of the apartments have been used as shops. These improvements caused Gazi Paşa Boulevard to become a shopping center. Finally, the number of the slums around the quarter of Köprülü has increased and new additi ons are built around and on the complex. Gazi Paşa 13. Road, which is made in front of the slums at the east of the complex, caused the disappearance of a lot of clues about the building. The second chapter also consists of the history of Aydın and Nasuh Paşa Complex, which are described in the writings of the travellers. Nasuh Paşa Complex is built by Osmanoglu Nasuh Paşa, who was an inhabitant of this city. Nasuh Paşa was charged to collect the taxes at Aydm between the years of 1111 MC/ 1699 CC-1119 MC/ 1707 CC; later he was appointed to the duty of the governor of Şam. The construction date of Nasuh Paşa Complex can be read from the epitaph on the entrance gate of the complex; which says 1120 MC/170B CC. The building of the complex, except the masjid, are called by different names by the public. They call the hammam as "Pasha Hammam", the Madrasah as "Osmanoglu Madrasah", the khan as "Zincirli Khan". The plates of pious foundations are burnt during the fire caused by the Greeks. Ankara Pious Foundations General Administration has its copies which were made in 1126 and 1134. There are two inscriptions at the complex. One of them is on the entrance gate of the khan. The other is on the entrance gate of madrasah. Only one piece of this incriptionsis existing at present, which were three in the time being. -xx- The third chapter is about the explanation of the madrasah and masjid. - Madrasah building gives the impression of U-type plan, but in fact it has a rectangular form close to a square. As Gazi Paşa 13. Road is made in the middle of the complex, the parts of the madrasah, which are seen at the east of this road, are destroyed by the slums, except one cell. Unfortunately, this cell is placed in the garden of a slum, so it can not be seen as the other ruins. The northern and southern parts are halfly ruined by the construction of the road. The western part is in best conditions. The entrance to the madrasah is supplied by an elliptical arched gate, which is 1B3 cm high from the ground and has a marble frame. The stairs, which reaches the gate, does not exist today. At the eastern side of the entrance, one cell is left. At the western side Df it, there are four cells. The madrasah, which has only one storey, has the height of two storeys as the result of the inclination. The entrance part has a rectangular plan. The other cells are in the shape of a rectangle, which are mostly close to a square. These cells, which have a size of (40B-426x370-3BB cm) have one gate and one window that are opened towards the courtyard and also have one window opened towards the road. Only the corner cell have two windows, that are opened towards the road. The cells at the western side have a size of (375-412x385-448 cm). All of them have one gate and one window, that are opened towards the road. The entrance gate of the corner cell at the southern side has a beveled edge, where the one at the nothern side has no such bevel. The western wall is blank. There are only two cells left at the rorthem side. This part has most of the problems. The cell, which is situated at the western side, is in fact two cells, where the dividing wall is destroyed. There is an arch place at the western side of the southern wall of the corner cell. The shape of this cell is a trapezium which differs from the ethers. Every cell has a furnace and two niches at the sides of the furnaces. No cell has its original floor. The gable roof, which was made of wood, is burnt. Only the groin vault of the entrance part is existing. This vault is the only stone and brick vault of the whole madrasah. The roof of the arcade is not existing. It is considered that, the roof continues until the arcade to cover it too. The load bearing elements of the arcade are considered as columns because of the bases of some cnlumrns, which can be seen in front of the entrance part. These column bases are circle sectioned spoli elements with palmette leaves. There is also one more column base in front of the cell no: 10. -xxi- The structure of the building is based on continuous load bearing elements (the walls), vertical load bearing elements (columns), arches and vaults. Apart from arches at the entrance part, the others are the relieving arches, which are placed above the windows. These segmental pointed arches are made of brick. The arches at the entrance part are: The marble arch above the gate, which is opening to the road, is an elliptical (basık) arch, the brick arch above the gate, which is opening to the courtyard, is a segmental pointed arch and at the eastern and western walls, there are circular arches whose material can not be defined. The walls of the madrasah are made of brick and rubblestone. The windows have rectangular frare and are covered with iron network. The gates have marble frames. These frames at the upper part have the shape of the arch. The frame of the cells at the southern side are made of one piece; the cells at the other sides are made of two pieces. At the southern facade of the madrasah, there are three rows of flat and two rows of notched "kirpi" eaves. The sizes of the bricks that are used in the madrasah are 27x28x3,5 - 14x27x3,5 cm. The only decoration of the madrasah is the cornice on the marble frame of the entrance gate and the motif of the cypress and the rosette on the gate itself. There is a marble stone with a flower motif on the ground, at the direction that the entrance part opens to the courtyard. It can be understood that it has been fallen down from the gate. The masjid is situated at the northeastern corner of the madrasah. The building is connected to the madrasah with an angle of 135° and lflO cm higher than the ' madrasah altitude. The masjid also has the function of a schoolroom. The eastern corner of the masjid is utterly destroyed. The entrance of it is supplied from the northwestern side. A slum is built at the destroyed corner of masjid. There is an apse at the other side of the entrance and there are two rows of windows which are placed one over the other at the sides of it. The masjid has two rows of windows and at the southwestern facade, there are a total of four windows. At the northeastern facade, one of the window rows is destroyed with the ruined corner. The windows at the lower row are rectangular with frames and iron network. The upper windows have segmental pointed arches. It can be passed by a corridor to the place B from the southern corner of the place A. This room has a size of (130-406x440-367 cm ) The room has windows, which have a marble frame and iron network. There are also two niches on the southeastern wall. There 1b -xxii- nothing left belonging the original floor. There is an unqualified gable roof as a roof. The original gable roof was higher than the roof existing today. There are no clues belonging to the floor at the place A. The shape of the roof is considered as a hipped roof. The load bearing element of the place A, which has a size of 7BlxBll cm., are walls, which have a thickness of B5 cm. The span at the lower windows are passed with flat arches; at the upper windows with segmental pointed arches and at the entrance gate with elliptical arch. The main decorative elements of the building are the muqarnases at the western and eastern corners, the marble entrance gate. which is surrounded with a frame and has a decoration of a rosette and the muqarnas on the niche of "mihrap". The forth chapter is the comparison of Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid with the similar examples of the same period. The madrasah, which is the subject 0f tne thesis, is shown similarities with the lBth century madrasahs by its plan and facade peculiarities, the structure and construction technics and the use of the material. Dn the other hand, the area where the madrasah has been built, has its own solutions from the points of the technics and the material that has been used. The madrasah is made of timber, so it is also compared with other timber madrasahs which were built in other periods. As a result: of these comparisons,, many solutions are obtained belonging to the. roof. The fifth chapter is about the restitution of these buildings. According to the informations obtained from the clues left Dn the buildings, the work that has been done as a result of comparisons and the old photographs, the restitution work is explained. There are some propositions for the number and replacement of the cells that are destroyed, the floors, the niches and furnaces that are ruined, the load bearing elements of the arcade, the plasters that are gone, the eaves, the chimneys, timber roof, covering materials. The sixth chapter explains the new function that is proposed for the building. The madrasahs, which have lost their original function by the law of "Tevhid-i Tedrisaf'in 1924, ware left. The buildings, which were left, have begun to bacome a ruin. The conditions for the Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid also the s^me. -xxu i- The hammatn, which is used at present, is firm; but the madrasah, the masjid and the khan are destroyed. Today, a restoration project is proposed for the khan as a function of a hotel and it is accepted. It is considered that the function of marketing place of handicrafts belonging to Aydın, is the best solution for the madrasah and masjid as they are nearby the Gazi Paşa Boulevard, which is the centre of shopping and commerce. The other buildings of tine duplex' are converted into a hotel. So this function is suitable tû them as well. Applied the restoration tecniques for the repair of the building are as follows : 1) Excavation and drilling, 2) Cleaning, 3) ConsolidatiDn, 4) Re-integration, 5) New additions The operations to be formed are : 1. Removal of the additions to the buildings (such as toilets, pool, new IBS lis, concrete). 2. The corrections of the structural and material deteriorati ons, (such as floor deflections, cracking on the wall, damages caused by water and plant). 3. Completion of the missing parts (such as doors, windows., roof covering, arcade covering and load bearing elements of it. h. Re-construction of the parts5 which should have existed in the original plan scheme but do not exist today (such as the other cells on the northern and southern side, the cells on eastern side, the stairs which reaches the entrance gate, the fountain, the stairs which reaches the masjid). 5. Building new additions which are necessary for implementing the new function (such as building toilets, electricity, water and heating systems). en_US Yüksek Lisans
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Aydın tr_TR
dc.subject Medreseler tr_TR
dc.subject Nasuh Paşa Medresesi tr_TR
dc.subject Restorasyon tr_TR
dc.subject Aydın en_US
dc.subject Madrasahs en_US
dc.subject Nasuh Paşa madrasah en_US
dc.subject Restoration en_US
dc.title Nasuh Paşa Medresesi ve Mescidi restorasyon projesi tr_TR
dc.title.alternative The Restoration project of Nasuh Paşa Madrasah and Masjid en_US
dc.type Master Thesis en_US
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