Kentsel Mekanda Kimliğin Ve Belleğin Proje Etkisiyle Değişimi: Karaköy Kemeraltı Bölgesi

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Tarih
2015-07-06
Yazarlar
Tepeli, Özlem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Günümüzde ekonomik ve kültürel üretim ve tüketim gitgide küreselleşirken, tarihsel kentler kendilerine özgü kimliklere zıt birtakım uygulamalarla bir başkalaşım sürecine girmekte ve bu sebeple kentsel kimliğin ve belleğin sürdürülebilmesi gitgide zorlaşmaktadır. Kentler dinamik organizmalardır, sahip oldukları kimlik ögelerini korurken bir taraftan yenilerini de oluşturabilirler. Burada önemli olan özgün kimliklerini kaybetmeden yenilerinin eklenmesidir. Kentsel mekânlar, kentte yaşayanların ortaklığını tanımlayan,zaman içerisinde gelişen birçok politik, sosyal, ekonomik ve mekânsal müdahale ile şekillenen ve sürekli bir değişim içinde olan dinamik mekânlardır. Kentsel mekânın bu değişim sürecini anlayabilmek, onun farklı katmanlarının algılanabilmesi ile mümkündür. Tarihsel süreçte bu mekânda yaşamış olan kültürlerin izlerini taşıyan kentsel mekânlar, günlük yaşam biçiminin oluştuğu bir sahne ve kimlik alanı olarak değerlendirilebilir. Son dönemlerde kentsel mekânlara yapılan müdahaleler ile kentler kimliklerini kaybederek birbirlerine benzemeye başlamış ve bu nedenle kent kimliği önemli bir tartışma konusu haline gelmiştir. Geçmişten günümüze kadar İstanbul için önemli bir merkez konumunda bulunan Karaköy Kemeraltı Bölgesi de son yıllarda hızlı bir değişim süreci içine girmiştir. Bu tez çalışması kapsamında, yaşanan bu değişim sürecinin kent kimliği ve belleği üzerindeki etkileri ortaya koyulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla farklı kullanıcı gruplarına göre doğal, yapılı ve beşeri çevre kimlik bileşenleri saptanmıştır. Gruplar kullanıcıların cinsiyet, meslek ve İstanbul'da yaşama süresi değişkenlerine göre oluşturulmuştur. Yapılan görüşmeler sonucunda aynı kullanıcı grubuna dahil olan bireylerin benzer kimlik bileşenlerini ifade ettikleri görülmüştür. Ancak bu bileşenler farklı kullanıcı grupları arasında değişkenlik göstermektedir. Bu durumun en büyük sebebinin ise alanın geçirdiği değişimden haberi olmayan ve hala eski ticaret merkezi işlevini hatırlayan kullanıcılar ile kente yeni gelen ve ilk olarak bu halini tanıyan kullanıcılar arasında olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Tez çalışması boyunca yapılan literatür araştırması, kentsel analizler, anketler ve gözlemler sonucunda kentlerin güncel koşullar ve gereklilikler doğrultusunda değişime uğramasının kaçınılmaz olduğu ancak, bu değişim sürecinde yeni ve bambaşka bir kurguyla eski olanı unutturmak yerine, mekanın kullanıcısını da içine alan ve onların katılımıyla biçimlenen, kentte oluşturulan kolektif belleğin bir parçası haline gelebilen uygulamaların gerçekleştirilmesinin daha doğru bir tutum olacağı ortaya konmuştur.
Historical cities enter into a process of metamorphosis with some applications to opposite their specific identity when the economic and cultural production and consumption is increasingly globalizing nowadays. Therefore, it becomes difficult to sustain urban identity and memory. Urban spaces have dynamic characteristics defining with the partnership of people living in the city and which are in constant change and shaped by political, social, economic and spatial interventions evolving over time. It is possible to understand the change process of urban space with perceiving its different layers. Urban spaces have traces of the cultures that lived the historical process in these places and they can be evaluated as a stage and identity area which consists of daily life. The cities began to resemble each other by losing their own identity due to the interventions on urban spaces in recent times. Thus, the urban identity has become a major discussion matter. Especially the old city centers are seen as high potential areas for transformation due to their central location with the cities began to be perceived as a commodity. The old city centers play a central role in the marketing of city or re-branding campaign because of their economic potential. The main purpose of the projects applied in these areas is trigger change and transformation around the area. These kinds of projects are related to the rejection of old image and creation of a new image as part of the city to attain a new appearance. The cities can create new identity elements while preserving existing components on the other hand. It is important to add new components without losing their original identity at this point. Otherwise the continuity of the urban memory could be damaged. The collective memory created by the citizens is affected by the constructions as destructions. Therefore, it becomes important to detect the continuity of urban identity and memory which are continuously reproduced and changed with references from the past and the present. This thesis aims to scope the importance of perception of the different layers of the city in assessing the effects of the changes occurring in the urban space on urban identity and memory. This study also intends to determine whether the components creating the urban identity changed over time and perceptibility the identification elements belonging to different layers of urban space today. For this purpose, the hypothesis is defined as "interfering in the urban space creates different components of identity and consequently differences occur perceiving in urban identity and collective memory by users". In this study, Karaköy Kemeraltı district is designated as a case study. The area is located in Beyoğlu district boundaries, one of the oldest trading centers of İstanbul. It is strategically important due to its spatial location. The area had many changes since its very rich historical past and entered into a rapid process of change in recent times. Especially the planned Galataport Project has affected the area and old trading function began to transform the leisure and tourism sector. These issues are evaluated in four chapters which are “Introduction”, "Basic Concepts in Understanding the Relationship between Urban Identity and Memory", "Investigation to Change Process of Urban Identity and Memory with Project Impact at Karaköy Kemeraltı District" and "Outcomes". The introduction part of the study introduces the aim, scope and the method of thesis. The urban space, the change and dynamism of urban space, the concepts of urban identity and urban memory and their relations are examined in the second part. In the third part Karaköy Kemeraltı district is discussed as a case area in the context of how this conceptual framework becomes reality on space. The area boundaries are defined and the selection reasons of the area are described for this purpose. Then, the history of area is discussed in four different period; Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Republican Era. The plans and urban design projects are examined to understand the spatial development process. The case study consists of two stages as the spatial analysis and survey. The changes on urban pattern and functions of structures are put forward with spatial analysis such as pattern analysis, registration analysis and structure function analysis for 2008 and 2015 years. In the questionnaire, it is analyzed that the level of awareness of users about the changing process of case area and their attitudes towards these changes. The equality is achieved on variables as gender, age, education level and life expectancy in Istanbul. As a result of analyzes and interviews it is understood that Galataport Project is the most important reason on this change process. In addition, the changes occurred in surrounding neighborhoods like Galata, Cihangir, Çukurcuma are also effective in this process. To experience the real effects in the case area has not been possible because of Galataport project is not implemented yet. However, it is clear that the area has become a center for investments. On this process, the old and new uses and users are together at same area and the quite opposite images in this way. Old users of the city indicate that they are generally not satisfied with this situation and had to move another areas. On the other hand, investors and employers remark that the area will have a completely different profile, so the process should be completed as soon as possible. Besides, the natural, built and human environment identity components are identified in the context of perceptions of users and many differences has determined between them because of changing process. In conclusion, the hypothesis is proved by literature research, analyzes, surveys and observations. The change of cities is inevitable towards current conditions and requirements. However, it is important to provide the realization of interventions in the process which are formed by citizens becoming a part of the collective memory instead of creating a completely new and different fiction and forgetting the old.
Açıklama
(Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
(M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Kentsel Mekan, Kentsel Kimlik, Kentsel Bellek, Urban Space, Urban Identity, Urban Memory
Alıntı