Santur'un dünü ve bugünü

Aybar, Serap
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Santur, Doğu Avrupa, Kuzey Afrika, Orta Asya, Hindistan, Kore ve Çin'de yaygın olup, İran klasik müziğinde yeri çok önemlidir. Sümer ler devrinden beri Türklerin de kullanmakta oldukları bu musiki aleti, tahtadan yapılmış bir çerçeve burgular için bir tahta bölüm, iki ya hut daha fazla ses deliği olan bir ses tahtası, bunun üzerinde telleri taşıyacak olan köprüler ve burgunun aksi kenarında tellerin bağlana cağı bir bölümden meydana gelir. Elli-altmış sene evvel saz takımlarında önemli bir yer tutan san turun günümüzde az çalınır bir saz olmasının başlıca sebebi akort problemi olmuştur. Sayılı icracı ve mekanlarda rastladığımız bu sazın, musiki eği timi veren kuruluşlarca yapılacak bir araştırma ile yapılabilecek ana karakteri bozmayan değişikliklerle musikimize tekrar kazandırıl ması Türk kültürüne bir katkı olacaktır
Having a rich language, history, and culture, Anatolia has hosted various civilizations. In the course of time (history) such civilizations have interacted with each other, and formed new civilizations, new cultures. Their rich culture have been reflected to their music as well. Their arts of music with structures which are sometimes similar, but sometimes different, have interacted. One of the most refined symbols of such interaction in music is, in my opinion, the SANTIR. The name "Santir" was presumably derived from the Aramaic language. Called "Psalterion" in Greek, the instrument is called "Santir" by the Arabs, Persians, Turks, Kurds and Georgians. The history of Santir dates from the time of the Assyrians. A research has revealed that Santir, an instrument of Iran and Iraq, was carried from North Africa to Spain by means of the Arabs. However, no evidence for the migration was found İn literature or sacred pictures of the Orthodox Church. As a matter of fact, Santir has never been the national instrument of the Turks, Arabs, and Iranians, who adopted such an instrument as their own. In the research on music conducted in the Arabia and Iran this issue was never touched. In documents issued in Arabic. it is indicated that this instrument is the "Egyptian psaltery". Santir was and is still used under different names in Europe. It is called "Dulcimer" in English, "Hackbrett" in German, and "Cimbalom" in Hungarian. This musical instrument which has been used by the Turks since the time of Sumerians was then in use in Baghdad, Aleppo, Erzurum, Diyarbakır, Kastamonu, and some other parts of Anatolia, while "Cimbalom" was played widely in Romania and Hungary. Santir which is used and known under various names in different countries varies in structure and tune as well. Dulcimer is, for instance, the name given to two (stringed) instruments which are completely different from each other. One is a hammered instrument, while the other is one that is played by gripping and releasing manually. Besides, santirs are also divided by their bridges into three groups as follows : Those with movable bridges, those with bridges located in strings, and those in both types. The Turkish Santir had in the past a particular position among our musical instruments, thanks to its sound echoing to distant places, as well as addressing to the emotion of the other players and singers in the groups performing Turkish classical music. Although it was used in Anatolia, and it deserved to be a model for the musicians nationwide, it was neglected by those of Istanbul. While no Tambur and Oud were seen among the instruments of the Turkish musician groups, such groups were mostly consisting of Violins, Qanuns, and Santirs. Kemancha and lute were rare. The reason of the rapid disappearance of this instrument is the former santir players themselves. Driven by the prejudice that Santir would not accept low-pitched tuning, they tried not to tune their instruments in low pitch. Besides, as a result of the fact that singing in high pitch was rather difficult, and they would have to practise round the clock, the singers could not endure to sing in high pitch. Such handicap has contributed to the abandonment process of Santir. Hence Santir has steadily lost its popularity, and replaced by Oud, which is highly suitable to low-pitched tuning. It is not easy to claim that the Turkish music and Turkish instruments are paid sufficient attention in studies conducted in the field of music in Turkey. For the present study which was designed under the aim that the music of the society of the author be a music that is touchable, discussible, researchable, and enrichible, some endeavours in this field are inevitably important. An approach to our music in more diversified aspects beyond the general evaluations of the Turkish music, the discovery of, for instance, its interaction with the social/cultural changes, its reflections in the same, and the "attitude" against such phenomenon, could well enrich the discussions on our music, and uncover the issues that have been disregarded. In Turkey, it is observed that the research on the Turkish music and the Turkish musical instruments are not intensive enough to build up a significant material in this field. The present study intends to investigate the uses of Santir in the Turkish music and in other countries as a result of mutual interactions, its places and ways of playing in the course of history. Investigation, performance, and varying structures according to makers, Santir performers, the reasons why Santir is a rarely played instrument today are discussed. The author wishes that the musicians of Istanbul who guide the Turkish music do again give to Santir the importance it deserves. And that Composers, Chorus Leaders, and performers prepare new scores in order that this instrument begins to accompany others
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Müzik aletleri, Santur sazı, Üretim teknikleri, Music, Musical instruments, Santour instrument, Production techniques