İskenderun Kenti Yeşil Alanlarının İrdelenmesi

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Tarih
1995
Yazarlar
Ölmez, Mirna
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Iskenderun kenti yeşil alanlarının irdelenmesi" tanımlı bu çalışmada İskenderun kendinde çarpık ve düzen siz kentleşmenin ortaya çıkardığı olumsuz sonuçların, yeşil alan sorunu çerçevesinde bir değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Amaç kent ve yeşil alan bağlantısı içinde, yeşil alanların günümüz kent yaşamı açısından kazandığı önem ve anlamın belirlenmesidir. Çalışma, beş bölümde ele alınmış olup, birinci bölümde, giriş olarak çalışmanın konusu ve önemi, amacı ve kapsamı, araştırma yöntemi üzerinde durulmuştur. İkinci bölümde, kentleşme ve açık alan kavramlarına değinilerek, kentlerde açık alanların işlevleri ile yeşil alanların insanların bedensel ve ruhsal yapısında yarat tığı olumlu etkilere yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, yeşil alan tipleri bina düzeyinden bölge düzeyine kadar hiyerarşik bir düzende incelenerek açıklamaya çalışılmış tır. İlk üç bölümde yeşil alan planlaması için gerekli genel bilgiler verildikten sonra dördüncü bölüm çalışma alanı olarak seçilen İskendurun kentinin tarihsel gelişimi, konumu nüfus durumu, ulaşım durumu ve ilkil yapısı ele alınmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise, İskenderun kenti yeşil alanlarının, nitelik ve nicelik yönünden analizleri yapılmış, ulaşılabilirlik durumları incelenmiş ve yerli-yabancı normlarla karşılaştırılarak yeşil alan durumu ortaya konmuştur. Buna göre; İskenderun kentinde 5'i park içinde olmak üzere 1D adet çocuk bahçesi vardır ve alanları toplamı 1B.575 m2,dir. Mahalle parkları top lam 55.200 m2 alan kapsadığı saptanmıştır. Ayrıca 1 şehir parkı bulunan İskenderun kentinin şehir parkı alansal büyüklüğü ise 9İ.D50 m2,dir. Spor alanları 69.000 m2, yeşil alan ve refüjler 90.123 m2, koru-orman ve çayırlıklar ise if1 1.1 50 ra2,dir. Toplam B59.011 m2 yeşil alanların 470.325 m2,sinin aktif olarak _ kullanımı ve yabancı normların çok alt düzeyinde olan İmar ve İskân Bakanlığının yeşil alan normlarına göre mevcut yeşil alanların 3 katından fazla yeşil alan açığı olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Yapılan anketlerde ise kent halkı yeşil ' alan gerek sinimi ve kent parklarının kullanım sıklıkları belirlenerek yeşil alanlar irdelenmiştir. Bu saptamalar ile sonuçlar ve öneriler belirlenmiştir.
In this thesis, the ; negative results formed as a result of awkward and irregular urban development generally in Turkey specially in iskenderun have been evaluated in the frame of green place problem. The population., incerease has led the world to a period of crisis. This increase made a world, where quantity is more important than quality, wheereas the main aim of humanity has always been to raise the values. The.population incerease can not be at the same rate, because worlds population capacity depends on world's resources like habitable area, density, water and food supely, energy and minerals. Development is a process of changing nature to meet demands by man. It began with the domestication of plants and animals in the Agricultural Revolution, and the establishment of human village settlements in the urban Revolution. It proceeded on a handicraft basis for perhaps eight to ten thousand years, on an indust rial basis for the last two hundred years. The post- industrial electronic basis is just begining. Urbanization and _. territorial " movements of popula tion in Turkey gain speed particularly after the year 195D. A three percent annual increase in rural areas and mechanisation and intensification of agriculture; have resulted in a drift of the rural population to the built-up areas. This has accelerated the expansion of Turkish cities tremendously. Urbanization in Turkey, is a result of the driving force of the rural population. Emigrants who could not find jobs in industry settled on lands outside main Xlll bulit-up areas. Thus, settlements of rural character, made uf of families from lou income groups, have appeared in the cities. Since this expansion of the cities increases faster than industrialisation, problems of housing, electricity, roads, water suppley, land use, lack of open spaces destruction of ocesystems and health services, traffic and pollution are becoming extremely serious. Unplanned settlements, outside the development areas of the cities, have also disturbed the pattern of agri culture. There is no legislation preventing or regula- ting-the transfer of agricultural lands to urbanization, and feu measures protecting agricultural land of high- fertility in the vicinity Df expanding cities from the impact of urbanization. İskenderun has began to carry all negative effects of awkward urban development in our country that has come face to face awkward and irregular urban develop ment parallel to the development of trade and industry, since 195D. Therefore, besides increasing population, unhealty structures, huge and common sguatter's houses, İskenderun has a congested traffic, and communication system. Today, İskenderun with. its view, has the following three negativities according to green land problems: 1- The old, open and green places inside and outside of the city, has been come to "die-out point" by cousing them fast and irregular transportation and residential districits. * 2- People's responsibility and sensitivinity to themselves, green places and their environment has been died out. This situation, caused environment and green sensitivity, finished even before beginning. 3- It has caused an unsensitive and unresponsible behaviour to the environment and green land in an ugly and unhealty environment. xiv Awkward Urban Development is the development of cities without planning, out of control, randomly wit hout public works and with no aesthetical concept, by enlarging from center towards edges, just like a tumour. This situation causes primitive residential areas to surround the city and this creates an environment that wouldn't let a humanistic way of living, and at the center deterioration of existing pattern of the city and destruction of historical and cultural values would be the result. The conclusion shall be the death of the cities, unhappiness and misery of peaple, disarder of society. Movement of the population to big cities, which took part in western countries in the 1 9 th century during industrialisiation are took part in Turkey in the second half of 20 th century. in last forty years, population of our cities has reached 5 or 1 D times of their inital amount. May be, countries that have better economical situations also wouldn't be able to handle with such an extreme increase in population by building healthy and contemporary cities. The extreme increase in population, movement of the population to cities and awkward urban development seems to be the predictor of a disaster, why did rapid urban development has became rapid "awkward" urban development? The reasons can be summarized as follows; * Movement of population to cities had been realized beyond every estimation and its still going on. The goverments could neither make correct and realistic decisions for settlement, regarding all Turkey basis, could nor execute such programs. instead of making the movement of population more difficult, it was encouraged by legal tolerances and providing title- deeds for illegal sattlement. Now people are coming to cities not only for job opportunities but also for plundering the land of cities. * City master plans has been developed but these master plans are left far behind the needs of increasing xv manpower is being consumed for these. The main disaster is the difficulty and impossibility of correcting this horrible heritage to be left to future generations. All.the pr.oblem is initiated from the lack of an appropriate plan and the public's lack of common sense on the subject. Dpen, and green areas are become new settlement areas by awkward urban development. At this subject, people are not sensitive. For this, a new education system must be become. People both love and think green areas. Perhaps most important, plants need to be love. When green and open areas are outside of city, the majority of the peaple in city, have to travel long distances for coming to green and open areas. For this, there arentt only green areas outside of city also there are green areas inside of settlement areas. xvm Awkward Urban Development is the development of cities without planning, out of control, randomly wit hout public works and with no aesthetical concept, by enlarging from center towards edges, just like a tumour. This situation causes primitive residential areas to surround the city and this creates an environment that wouldn't let a humanistic way of living, and at the center deterioration of existing pattern of the city and destruction of historical and cultural values would be the result. The conclusion shall be the death of the cities, unhappiness and misery of peaple, disarder of society. Movement of the population to big cities, which took part in western countries in the 1 9 th century during industrialisiation are took part in Turkey in the second half of 20 th century. in last forty years, population of our cities has reached 5 or 1 D times of their inital amount. May be, countries that have better economical situations also wouldn't be able to handle with such an extreme increase in population by building healthy and contemporary cities. The extreme increase in population, movement of the population to cities and awkward urban development seems to be the predictor of a disaster, why did rapid urban development has became rapid "awkward" urban development? The reasons can be summarized as follows; * Movement of population to cities had been realized beyond every estimation and its still going on. The goverments could neither make correct and realistic decisions for settlement, regarding all Turkey basis, could nor execute such programs. instead of making the movement of population more difficult, it was encouraged by legal tolerances and providing title- deeds for illegal sattlement. Now people are coming to cities not only for job opportunities but also for plundering the land of cities. * City master plans has been developed but these master plans are left far behind the needs of increasing xv manpower is being consumed for these. The main disaster is the difficulty and impossibility of correcting this horrible heritage to be left to future generations. All.the pr.oblem is initiated from the lack of an appropriate plan and the public's lack of common sense on the subject. Dpen, and green areas are become new settlement areas by awkward urban development. At this subject, people are not sensitive. For this, a new education system must be become. People both love and think green areas. Perhaps most important, plants need to be love. When green and open areas are outside of city, the majority of the peaple in city, have to travel long distances for coming to green and open areas. For this, there arentt only green areas outside of city also there are green areas inside of settlement areas.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Hatay-İskenderun; Yeşil alanlar, Hatay-İskenderun ;Green areas
Alıntı