Tramvay İstasyonlarında Tasarım Ve Güvenlik Esaslarının Araştırılması İstanbul T1 Tramvay Hattı İncelemesi

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Tarih
2015-06-04
Yazarlar
Kasımoğlu, Esin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Günümüzde kentlerin, başlıca sorunlarından biri ulaşım sorunudur. Hızla artan nüfus ve trafik yoğunluğuna paralel olarak, metropoller başta olmak üzere, tüm şehirlerde trafik sorunu gündeme gelmektedir. Bu sorunun çözülmesi için en etkin yol ise toplu taşıma sistemlerinin geliştirilmesidir. Toplu taşıma sistemlerinin en güvenilir ve çevreye duyarlı türü olarak raylı sistemler kabul edilebilir. Raylı sistemlerin, yaygın kullanılan, kolay ve hızlı bir şekilde hayata geçme özelliğine sahip sistemlerinden biri tramvaylardır. Ancak tramvaylar raylı sistemler içinde, yaya ve araç kesişmelerinden dolayı riskli bir tür olarak da kabul edilebilir. Tez kapsamında, tramvay sisteminde araç ve yaya kesişmelerinin sıkça yer aldığı istasyonların tasarımı ve düzenleme esasları, Türkiye’de ve dünyada kabul edilen tasarım kriterleri incelenmiştir. Sistemin en önemli parçası olan istasyonların tasarımında etkili faktörler, istasyon tipleri, istasyon yerleşimi, farklı uygulamaların avantaj ve dezavantajları ve kazaları önlemek için istasyon, hat çevresi ve araçlarda alınması gereken önlemler aktarılmaktadır. Tramvay tasarım standartları kapsamında istasyon çevresi, istasyon içi planlaması, yönlendirmeler, kullanılacak elemanlar, karayolu düzenlemeleri ve yapılan düzenlemelerin yolculara etkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Ardından örnek olarak seçilen İstanbul’daki T1 Kabataş-Bağcılar Tramvay Hattı özellikleri, yerinde yapılan gözlemler, saha çalışmaları, temin edilen veriler üzerinden analiz edilmiştir.  T1 Hattı çalışmaları kapsamında, istasyonların kullanım yoğunluğu, istasyon ve çevresindeki geometrik düzenlemelerin yeterliliği ve güvenlik önlemleri ilişkisi incelenmiştir. İstasyonlarda veya hatlarda meydana gelen kazala sayıları, yıllık değişimleri ve kaza nedenleri irdelenmiştir. Kazalara yönelik gazete, dergi ve benzeri kaynaklarında yer alan haberlere de yer verilerek, istasyon bazında değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Bu özellikler güvenlik açısından değerlendirilmiş, risk taşıyan bölgeler belirlenmiş, alınması gereken önlemler ve çözüm önerileri getirilmiştir. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda, istasyon çevresinde yapılan tasarımda, güvenli yaya erişim bağlantıları, karayolu geometrik düzenlemeleri, sinyalizasyon, yönlendirme ve araç tasarımının, yaya ve yolcu güvenliği sağlamasındaki önemi ortaya konmuştur. Standartlar ve kriterler doğrultusunda bütüncül planlama yaklaşımıyla düzenleme yapılmasının gerekliliği vurgulanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda yapılacak uygulamalar kaza riskini azaltacak, güvenli ve etkin bir tramvay sistemi oluşturacaktır.
One of the most common problem of metropolitan areas is traffic. People who live in these areas have to make travel each day. Population growth and economic increase cause more and more difficulties in traffic and it results economic losts. To choose these transportation problems, governments try to improve transportation systems nowadays. One of the most effective and safe transportation systems, which needs less areas to be changed in ancient form of cities is rail systems. Istanbul is one of those metropolitan areas which transport has high volume of passengers each day. Tram system is one of these transportation systems which connects so important and strategic parts of city to each other. However, access is difficult for many passengers and the stations environment is not yet well designed for the pedestrians, passengers and vehicle movement. Overcrowding from sustained increases in patronage and traffic congestion aggravate the problem, leading to increase accident counts. This study imposed safety requirements on design of stations and its environment infrastructure. They are have to be achieved within safety design, adding legal pressure to develop a safer tram network. The problem is world-wide common. The recent expansion of new tram systems installed in Turkey and elsewhere provides scope to analyze emerging trends in safety. The research adopts a case study base on İstanbul T1 Tram Line. It identifies safety design issues then compares design solutions in several stations to identify common problems. Basic design criteria to be used in design of tram systems, standard and directive drawings will be explained to compare and guide the design activities. It should be consistent with passenger safety, system reliability, service comfort, mode of operation, type of tram vehicle to be used and maintenance considerations. The applicability of that design criteria manuals are noted in several sections, where it appears to be particularly appropriate. However, the regulations must be adhered into all areas, by using Department of Transport and Turkish Standard Institution’s requirements to take into account when developing a tram stop for the city network. Besides the document itself builds on existing work within requirements and incorporates policies and standards from national/international to provide a single point of reference when considering tram stop design.  In the thesis, the design of the station, often located at the intersection of the tram system with other systems and regulatory principles are examined. The design criteria and standards adopted in Turkey, national and international standards for taking application measures are examined. Factors affecting the design of the system are the most important part of the station. The design and operation of tram system in a dense urban environment requires a thoughtful design process. The details of street configuration, access changes, turning movements, sidewalk widths, and track way treatments are important to property owners, business owners, residents, and city traffic engineers. These details impact project costs, schedule, and community character. Arrangements of tram lines, their stations and their design rules are one of the most important needs for safety of vehicles in places, where stations meet the intersections and pedestrians passing intersections. The station and the road geometric design, and plates that arrangements should be made in accordance with design criteria to ensure the safety of passenger, pedestrian and vehicle design. Omissions or errors that occurred in this arrangement will increase the risk of accidents. Determination of security solutions with the construction of tram stations and editing will be increased. This document concludes that level access from a platform tram stop to a low floor tram remains the prevailing solution universally. It improves access for everyone and delivers operational benefits. Integration of standard designs with the existing urban fabric also creates new directions for accessibility to public transport. To improve the Istanbul’s tram system safety, the system may be assisted by applying design solutions and trends identified in the research. The compliant trains on the metropolitan and regional rail networks, bus stops, tram platform stops and low floor trams, access paths, ramps and tactile ground surface indicators. Other important areas, including waiting areas and stairs needs to be designed integrated with each other. Rail structure is the most reliable and environmentally acceptable system of public transportation system. Tram systems, that are widely used are one of the easiest and fastest way system capable of realization of the railway systems. Trams are also one of the most risky groups for pedestrian and passenger safety in rail types. This study is intended to point out tram station design and problems in Istanbul T1 Tram Line. Within the scope of the study; standards, station environment and in station planning and design, materials to be used, road effects have been studied as a priority and how has passengers affected by these regulations.  The number of accidents occurring in stations or lines, annual change and the causes of the accident are examined. Newspaper for the accident, giving place to the news contained in the journals and similar sources, the station was made on the basis of assessments. By studying Istanbul T1 Tram Line in detail for the application of these principles are best practices and missing parts are experienced. As part of environmental design standards tram station, the station-house planning, elements to be used, the effects of the highway, was examined how it affects passengers of the regulations. Istanbul T1 Kabataş-Bağcılar Tram Line then selected sample characteristics were analyzed with the observations made by the provided data and place. In the study, the importance of design criteria is emphasized in order to increase tram study efficiency. Increase of efficiency is proposed to extend the rail system utilization. In the study, T1 Tram Line owned stations, user density, and the station's arrangement, whether enough of station sections, station and surrounding geometric arrangements examining determined adequate or inadequate specifications and security risk of fields, evaluated the measures the direction to be taken and proposals for solutions.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Tramvay İstasyonları, İstasyon Tasarımı, Tramvay Güvenliği, İstanbul T1 Kabataş-bağcılar Tramvay Hattı, Tram Station, Station Design, Tram Safety, Istanbul T1 Kabatas-bagcilar Tram Line
Alıntı