Kentsel mekanın, bina kabuğunun katkısı açısından incelenmesi

Özcan, Nazım Bora
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Süreli Yayın ISSN
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışma; bina kabuğunun kentsel mekan ve dış mekan planlamasında yaşayan, canlı, aktivite yüklü bir fiziksel çevre yaratmasına ilişkin bir saptama çalışmasıdır. Bina kabuğu ve onun dış mekanla ilişkisi bu çalışmanın ana öğesidir. Bina kabuğu- kentsel mekan etkileşimi ve bunların örneklerle analizini içeren çalışmamız yedi bölümden oluşmuktadır. Birinci bölümde, çalışmamızın amacı anlatılmakta ve kavramsal çerçeve belirlenmektedir. ikinci bölümde, mekan ve kentsel mekanın tanımlan, sınıflandırmaları yapılmakta ve kentsel mekana ait teoriler açıklanmaktadır. Üçüncü bölüm, kentsel mekanın geçmişten günümüze gelişimini anlatan bir analizi içirmektedir. Dördüncü bölüm, Bina-kentsel mekan ilişkisinin belirtildiği bölümdür. Bina ve bina kabuğunu oluşturan biçimin tanımının ve sınıflandırılmasının yapılmasının ardından bina biçimlenişinin kentsel mekana katkısı; çeşitli açılardan incelenmektedir. Beşinci bölüm, bina kabuğunun dış mekanla ilişkisini ve dış mekana katkısını anlatmaktadır. Bu bölümde Cullen'in kentsel tasarım ilkeleri yeniden yorumlanmaktadır. Altıncı bölüm, bina kabuğu ve kentsel mekan ilişkisinin örneklerle açıklandığı bölümdür. Bu bölümde olumlu örneklerin yanı da olumsuz örnekler de yeralmaktadır. örneklerin incelenmesi sınırlılık, aktivite ve ölçekolmak üzere üç ilke bazında yapılmaktadır.
Urbanisation in the twentieth century causes loss of public outdoor areas at the urban level. The open spaces tried to be created within the city, do not have the potential of attracting people and public use. This shows us that the treatment of urban outdoor space and the architectural built form which defines it do not have sensitive solutions about that. Many of the applications have remained unsatisfactory and the definition of urban outdoor space is still vague. In order to gain defined and livable public open space and to increase the use of outdoor open space in the city center, the study of the immediate space adjacent to the built form is essential. Such a study will help the determine the relations, the factors and the physical elements that support and encourage the use of urban outdoor space. Architectural built forms in the city center, as defining surfaces for urban outdoor space, mediate between different domains and levels. They provide both usual and functional linkage between exterior public domain and interior private domain. How this linkage occurs between this domains constitutes an important aspect of how we read and use urban public space. Therefore in the interaction of the building and the urban level, it's necessary to study how the interior domain that building surfaces contain and the exterior public domain that they create interrelates. XII The built form, mentioned in this study covers the building in the city center; accommodating commercial or cultural enterprises. The type of urban outdoor space involves urban street or urban square where pedestrian movement exist. One of the most essential characteristics of urban space design of the objet itself, but its correlation with other objects and its surroundings. Likewise the built form in the city center beside the independent and completeness of its own, is a part of a larger context; it is a part of the urban fabric. The interaction between built form and its context lead us to consider here what psychologist call the relationship, between figure and ground. In the figure- ground relation ship, the figures has an articulate shape, from which the active properties of the percept derive and the 'ground' having no boundries, is an undefined and unlimited entity. According to Geştalt principles, figure and ground have certain contrasting properties such as; figure occupies an area that is smaller than that of the ground; figure appears to be near to the observer, ground appears to extend behind the figure; has a thing like quantity, ground is formless. The relationship of the figures on the ground, namely the built forms in urban fabric, determine the character of space as whole. The built forms with their size, shape and location generate fields of forces around themselves, so that they define and structure urban space outside. The forms placed beside, over or under one another create a serries of layers of space and such a spatral stratification makes the urban experience X11I meaningful. The built form like any figure tends its autonomy by its edges, therefore by the contact it has with its exterior. In this contact, it forms a boundry on the ground plane and establishes the definitions of space. It also important whether the figural quality established by the continuous and enclosing character of the built form, can be related to man, or in other words, 'human scale'. The 'human scale' in urban space does not only mean dimensions which relate to mans' body, but to actions which part. Human scale being a function of meeting and coming together, determines the spatial form such as narrowness of the street and roundness of square. Urban space are conditionned by the boundries of built forms are generators of urban activity of the public life. The relationship of the built form with open space determines various practical concern for orientation, communication, usage and produces a conceptual structure of the cityscape. Activities and functions that take place in the built form or along the street are the determinants of urban space use. Different types of activities in the city center, besides satisfying necessary community services, act as social gathering mechanism. Depending on their sociability, activity types and locations maintain the level of pedestrian use and contact. Especially uses at the ground floor effect the public social interaction. Activity location within the extend of a public street space is another determinant for the liveliness of urban space. The activity may be completely within a building like an XIV enclosed shopping mall, oriented toward the street or in the lateral space of the streets like sidewalk cafes. The success of the built form giving shelter to activity can be measured simply by the ability to generate pedestrian activity. The urban building, which encourages a high level of pedestrian activity, can resolve the issues in order to make a more lively, more usable urban outdoor space. These shows us the impact of the activity settings, types, locatinos and pedestrian use on the urban realm and the importance of sensitive design solutions at the ground floor or transitional zone, for supporting urban outdoor activities. The aim of this study is to approach the urban fabric's problems with individual buildings in the concept of the public open spaces. Here the main goal is not to create new criteria or theories on public open spaces and built form relations just to make determinations about the evaluated urban environments or public open spaces with some examples from the city center. This study, which requires an unifying approach among different disciplines, is composed of seven chapters. The first chapter consists of the definition of the problem and the theoretical framework which is based on studies conducted in urban planning and urban design. xv In the second chapter after making the definitions of space according to different ideas like perception continuity and enclosure we made some classification about space. This classification is made upon the elements that enclose the space and according the perception of space. The second chapter also consist of the urban space definitions, properties, classifications and theories. The third chapter is about the history of urban space from the agora to the twentieth century understandings of space. The fourth chapter is the main chapter of this study. In this chapter the shape, the form of the building is firstly explained, then the contribution of form to urban space is given in two ways; activity and physical form. The fifth chapter consist of contribution of building shell to public outdoor shace. The criteria of Cullen is re examined and made groups of five main criteria. 1. Topological Criteria 2. Functional Criteria 3. Perceptional Criteria 4. Place Criteria 5. Semantic Criteria XVI The sixth chapter is the analysis part of this study some examples are studied according to the things that we mentioned till here. The examples are examined according to activity, scale and enclosure. The seventh chapter is the conclusion part of the thesis. This thesis can be used in the evaluation of the existing environment and can be used as a guide for the planners and architects in their design activities.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Dış mekan, Fiziksel çevre, Kentsel mekan, Outdoor, Physical environment, Urban space