Buluş: Bir Deneyim Alanı Olarak Hareket

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Tarih
2013-12-16
Yazarlar
Aykaç, Gülşah
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
BULUŞ: BİR DENEYİM ALANI OLARAK HAREKET ÖZET Mimari tasarım sürecinde araştırma yapma ve araştırmanın temsili üzerine sorular sorarak başlayan bu tezin oluşturulmasında, teorik kurgudan önce bedensel deneyler gerçekleştirildi. Deneyler üzerine denemeler yazılarak, beden, hareket, alışkanlık gibi kavramlar üzerinden yeni betimlemeler ve düşünceler üretildi. Kendisi bir tasarım süreci olan bu tez, süreç halinde sunulmaktadır. Deneylerin her biri İstanbul’a ve bugüne ait sorunsallarla başlamaktadır. Bu deneyler “Yokevlilik Üzerine”, “Yürümek: Tarlabaşı” ve “Yeniden Hareket Etmek: Kumkapı” başlıklarında sırasıyla; “evin anlamı nedir?”, “Tarlabaşı için kullanılan dil çözümlenebilir mi?”, “Kumkapı’da hareket ile haritalama nasıl gerçekleşir?” sorunsalları ile başlamaktadır. Bu sorunsallar, kent içinde hareket ederek ve kentle bedensel olarak temas ederek oluşan anlamların video, fotoğraf, yazı, ses kaydı gibi araçlarla temsili denenerek araştırılmaktadır. Her bir deney yeni bir sorunsalla biter. Deneylerin sonuçlar yerine sorunsallarla bitişi; deneyler sonrası yazılan denemeler için birer başlangıç noktasıdır. Her bir deney sonrasında yazılan denemeler, hem araştırma yapma eylemi hem de bu araştırmanın temsil edilmesi ile ilgili çıkılan yazı yolculukları olarak görülebilir. Yolculuk olarak betimlenmesinin nedeni, örneğin bir denemenin deneyimden bedene doğru hareketinin, başka bir denemede tersine dönüp önceki denemenin kavramları ele alışını dönüştürebilmesidir. Üç deney ardından üç deneme yazıldı: “Araştırmacının Eylemi”, “Araştırmacıdan Açık Bedene” ve “Buluş”. Bu denemelerde, bedenle ilgili “açık beden” ve tasarım süreci ile ilgili “buluş” kavramları üretildi. Açık beden deneyime açık olan araştırmacının bedeni; buluş ise ürün ve üretimin eş zamanda gerçekleştiği bir süreç olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Açık beden, spontane olarak hareket eden bedendir. Bu sayede, mimari tasarım sürecini deneyimleyen kişinin bedensel olarak cisimleştirmiş olduğu alışkanlıklarını kırabileceği düşünülmektedir. Buluş, tasarım süreci için yeni bir hareket alanı olarak deneyimi ve yeni bir deneyim alanı olarak da hareketi önerir. Bir keşif yolculuğudur. Bu yolculukta, bedensel olarak yoğunlaşma içerisinde bulunmaktır. Zihin ve tasarlanmış hareketler geri plandadır. Beden, kendi dışı ile birlikte bir oluş içerisindedir. Durağan ya da tanımlı bir yöntem değildir: Her beden kendi yöntemini bulur, her beden kendi süresini deneyimler, her beden her an yöntemini değiştirebilir. Dolayısıyla her buluş farklıdır. Ürün ve üretim aynı anda gerçekleşir. Ürünün yeniden temsili bu ilksel temasta kurulan hareketten kuvvet alır. Buluş yeniden temsil için bir esin kaynağıdır. Tüm bu önermeler deneyimlenerek kavranabilecek bir sürece vurgu yaptığı için, kavramın biçimsiz gövdesidir. Başka bir deyişle bu önermeler, gerçekleşen deneyler sonucu yazılmış, değişebilir ve dönüşebilir anlam belirmeleridir. Mimari tasarım sürecinde hareket ve bedenini araştırmaya katan her beden için buluş tekildir. Araştırma yapma ve bunun temsilinin, mimari tasarım sürecinin birbiri içine geçen katmanları olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu süreçte sabit fikirlerin ve alışkanlığa dönüşen araştırma yapma – temsil etme biçimlerinin kırılması için bedensel deneyime ve bu deneyimle kurulan anlamlara açık olmak, bu tezin vurgulamak istediği noktadır. Deneyler ve denemeler halindeki tez, bu noktaya nasıl varıldığını anlatmakla birlikte, açıklığın nasıl gerçekleşebileceğine dair ipuçları verebilir.
DISCOVERING: MOVEMENT AS AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AREA SUMMARY Architecture creates ideas for urban and human life. The design process is important for this creation. There are two layers in design process: the action of researching and representing. The problematic of how to research and how to represent the research has been explored for architectural design process by this thesis project. It is thought that the design process is not linear. Representation starts within the action of research. But, in the action of researching, what is a priori for the researcher? It is claimed that the bodily contact with the city is a priori step. The bodily contact is a contact which body could find its unique reading of urban. In this context, if bodily contact was questioned, new points could be found for the design process in architecture. The thesis project is already an architectural design process. So the methodology is contacting urban places with the body and trying to represent it. To represent this process, the thesis is composed with experiments and essays. Three experiments were eventuated with the body. These experiments are: No-Having Home, Walking: Tarlabaşı, Removing: Kumkapı. After experiments, essays were written. So essays could be seen as a movement in notions by the light of experiments. These essays are: “The Action of Researcher”, “From Researcher to Open Body”, “Discovering”. In the first experiment, called No-Having Home, the beginning problematic is what a home means for an individual. To understand the notions of dwelling and house, a performance occurred. Usually, in daily life, individuals regularly go to home. To change this ability, the performance is the action of not going to the home. It is called no-having home; because homeless is something different. After this experiment, “The Action of Researcher” was written. In this essay, the notions of the body and habitus are agued. The body is a thought as a living-body and human senses and evaluates the meanings through the operation of habits, which could fix the real potentials of body. Living body exists in space with a habitual and reflective knowledge. Basically, it could be said that body has habits. Habits are forms of embodied creative agency, shaping meaningful and purposive conduct, arising out of the interaction between the organisms. In addition, people sense and evaluate meanings through habits. In other words, human activity which is influenced by prior activity and in that sense acquired; contains within itself certain systematization by habits. With this definition of habit, “habit and space” create a new concept “habitus”. Performing bodies composes habitus with their habitual movements. So habitus could be read as an invisible text to understand relation between body and space. The potential of living body could find its own particular way. And sometimes fixed research and representation methods could bind the potential of living body. The dualism of subject and object cuts the contact between body and space. Even though, this dualism between subject and object is argued in this first essay, there is a paradox: The topic highlights the subject of the researcher. To break up this paradox, the second experiment was carried out. In the second experiment, called “Walking: Tarlabaşı”, the beginning problematic is how to represent the body contact with Tarlabaşı? It was claimed that there was a fixed language which had words like unsafe to describe Tarlabaşı. So was it possible to change the meaning of words with body contact? The experiment started with only walking. No recording tools such as camera were used. Then a voice record was taken during having a chat with a man, who was living in Tarlabaşı. It was discovered that walking without camera changed the perception of Tarlabaşı. The camera, sometimes, labels the body as “a researcher”, so the site could be perceived as unsafe. In fact, it is thought that unsafe could signs to different meanings for the researcher and for the man who lives there. During the sound record, the man used the word of unsafe, but with a very different meaning. He talked about the violence of police on him. In the second essay, “From Researcher to Open Body”, the starting point is experience. Experience is the area, that subject and object dualism is absent. There are two faces of experience. The first one is well-known methods of research or habitual ways of research and the second one is immanent plane. It is also like the paradox between subject and the body. However, if spanning in immanent plane were large, the design process would be unique. To make spanning in immanent plane larger, the body should be open to experience. There are various terms about body, besides how to use body concept is critical. Body is either a subject, which is constructed by culture and outer environment, nor a transcendental core. On one hand, there is a rigid term: Subject. And on the other hand an unknown knowledge is claimed about body: Inner body or transcendental body. Nevertheless, body is both a social and a unique thing that creates the centre of perception. Therefore, it is not only a subject or something that have a core. There are also some body concepts to understand the modes of body. Body-ekstasis is one of the most important one. Ekstasis, which is a Greek word, signs to an unstable body. Ekstasis body is a term that self and world, mind and body, and subject and object can’t be specified in isolation from one another. To understand the body of the researcher who is open to the experience of contacting with the city, a new notion is created in this thesis: Open body. The open body could go beyond the habits and fixed ideas of habits. It depends on the purely embodied sensation of one’s body, self, objects and others. Embodied sensation depends on reflexive and pre-conscious transaction between human and the world. There could be many ways to develop an open body. Conscious actions, which the researcher acts, could be explored to find out some ways. Taking photograph could be given as an example of conscious action. It is suggested that tools, such as camera, are similar with organs. So if the researcher use tools not to organize its experience but to discover it with the experience, tools might be used more creatively. Besides, the tools, which are not known as like as tools in daily life, could be used. Or sometimes tools might totally not used (like not using a recording machine in the second experiment). Furthermore, “play” could create a different time and space experience for open body. Because play is something which has its own rules, time and space. It could take the body out of the daily life and the body could be more open to the experience. In the third experiment Re-moving in Kumkapı, only “movement” was used for remapping the site. The movement was recorded by hidden camera. It could be said that the product and production occurred at the same time in this experiment. Movement was used to define the methodology of remapping, instead of using dance. Because dance could sign to a well known area. Besides, dance is only a subset of movement researches. The relation between architecture and space is similar like the relation between dance and movement. Because movement could be conceptualized as like as space. Movement has transitions between objective and subjective, experiential thinking which points out to the different cognitive and perceptual modes. Because of this property, movement could be used to research the space. Reversely, space could be used to research the movement. They have a reflexive relation. One affects the other when it has been affected. Therefore, there are many choreographers who create researches between movement and space. It could be claimed that these kinds of researches have created a transdisciplinary area in between dance, performance and movement researches. There are some traditional movement styles, which point out spontaneous movement or unconscious movement. Butoh dance and Katsugen could be given as examples. Spontaneous movement could get the body break out of its habitual neural/muscular pathways. So the body could be able to move in all possible ways. It is a fluid technique for freeing the body from all techniques. So it is a source of self knowledge. In the third essay, it is questioned that how movement could use in design process. So a new term is created: Discovering. Body is open in discovering; it is a form of motion. It is potential for both habits and movement beyond habits. Potential is significant. Because, potential is like a moment of liminality in which the open body is in between the socially constructed body (which is organized by habits) and the self. During discovering, the open body transcends the constructred body and in that transcendence, potentiality could be realized. The term of discovering is related with becoming. Because becoming is the state where the body and the others are effected at the same time. In becoming there is no subject and object. It is an organic whole and it is a process of change and movement. It is a new way of being that is a function of influences rather than resemblances. Discovering creates a new plane in becoming. It signs to a process, which is also a qualitative experience and a reflexive methodology. Discovering is a way of breaking out the “habitual” action of research. It creates confrontations between the body and the other things; the role of the body is to live through these confrontations. Therefore, there would be a pure connection and an organic interaction. It is theorized that new meanings could be found in discovering with the power of this connection. This thesis project could give an idea to understand “open body” and “discovering”. However, it could be internalized by experiencing it in a design process. Besides, the statements of these two terms could be changed or returned. In conclusion, it is expected that the terms are representations of experiments; so they carry qualitative potentials just as like as movement.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
Anahtar kelimeler
mimari tasarım süreci, özne nesne dualizmi, deneyim, hareket ve dans, mimarlık ve dans, beden, architectural research, movement and dance research, body and space
Alıntı