Trabzon'da Cephanelik Binası Restorasyonu

Şahinkaya, Fulya
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Cephanelik Binası; Trabzon 'un güneyinde yeralan Boztepe'nin batı yamacında, vadiye bakar biçimde inşa edilmiştir. Taşıt yolundan oldukça yüksekte bulunduğundan dar bir toprak yol izlenerek ulaşılabilmektedir. Yapı yeşillikler arasında ve kuzeyden gelindiğinde görülmeyecek şekilde konumlanmış tır. II.Abdülhamit döneminde (1876-1908), güneyinde bulunan küçük bir karakolhane ile birlikte inşa edilmiştir. Eski fotoğrafları üzerindeki 1887 tarihi yapım yılı hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Bugün sadece caphanelik binası ayakta kalmıştır. Tüm çatı örtüsü ve döşeme elemanları yok olan yapının sadece beden ve yapıyı çevreleyen bahçe duvarlarının küçük bir bölümü sağlam kalabilmiştir. Cephanelik binası için bir kullanım önerisi getirmeyi amaçlayan bu tez çalışması 5 bölümden oluşmaktadır. 1. bölümde; tezin amacı ve çalışma yöntemi anlatılmış, batılılaşma hareketleri içindeki Osmanlı Devleti 'nin genel ve II.Abdülhamit dönemindeki durumuna bakılmış, ayrıca tüm bu koşullar içinde Trabzon'un durumuna yer verilmiştir. 2. bölümde, yapının inşa edildiği ondokuzuncu yüzyılda Osmanlı Devleti 'nin mimarî ortamı incelenmiştir. 3. Bölümde, cephaneliğin genel özellikleri ve gelişimi ele alınmıştır. 4. bölüm, restitüsyon, 5. bölüm restorasyon önerisini içermektedir. Cephanelik binasının; öncelikle bulunduğu semtin ve şehrin kültür hayatına hizmet etmesi amacıyla, kültür merkezi olarak restore edilmesi önerilmiştir.
Trabzon with its history extending to B-C. 2000, has many civilization signs. It took a role as a gate of the great tradeway. Ammunition building, which is chosen as the subject of this thesis, was built on the western side of Boztepe which is located to the south of Trabzon. It's bounded by the valley, rather high from the road and has a mysterious appearance among the trees. Ammunition building was built during the reign of Abdulhamit II. (1876 - 1908). It had a police-station which was situated to the south of the ammunition building. From the old photographs in the Albums of Yxldxz, we know that, It was built in 1887. Now it is a ruin. The aim of this thesis is to propose a suggestions for possible new functions to the ammunition building. In the first chapter, the purpose of the thesis and research methods are explained. The general situation of the Ottoman Empire, under Europe an influence, during the period of Abdülhamit II, was investigated. The position of Trabzon with in the same framework is discussed. 19. th. century was the period when the Ottoman Empire was under the influence of Europe, It is a time of economical decline. Because most of its land was in Europe, It was one of the countries that was affected by the results of Industrial Revolution. In 19 th. century although the whole economical shortage and wars, in many city centers especially Istanbul structures were build. Trabzon has been an important trade center because it has been existing for many years and was positioned on the silk road. In 19 th. century, Trabzon1 s population was 33.000 including Turks, Armenians and Greeks. Trading developed in the city. There were two squares in the city "Gavur Square" and "Kabak Square". In that century the greatest development in Trabzon was the establishment of the first printing-office in 1866. Trabzon was occupied by the Russian army in 1914 but in 1918 it gained its independence. The period of Abdlilhamit II. was time only factories (guns, gun powder) depending on the war industry, was working. At that time, the greatest problem for the Ottoman Empire was the creation of the contemporary military organization and army. In the second chapter, during the 19 th. century the architectural situation of Ottoman Empire was investigated. Ottoman Empire was affected by the political and social events in Europe at the same period. Ottoman's pleasures and aesthetics were influenced by Europe. Architecture has changed largely by the application of European styles. Empire and neo-classic styles were frequently used. At the time of Abdülhamit II, neo classic forms and art-nouveau decorations were common in buildings. Barracks and military buildings were built by the European architects and engineers with neo-classic style. These are the results of improvement efforts in military conditions of the Empire. It was noticeable that the number of barracks increased in 19 th. century. At first, barracks had been made of timber after those were built as stone work in large dimensions. Generally barracks are rectangular in plan with large court yards. Examples are as follows: - Kalyoncu barracks - Humbaracxlar barracks. - Selimiye barracks. - Beyoğlu barracks - Kuleli Cavalry barracks - Mecidiye barracks - Maçka Armoury In the second part, gunpowder-mills, constructed in Istanbul, were examined. These are: - At meydanı - Kağıthane - Şehremini - Bakırköy - Azadlı After Janissary Corps were abolished in 1826, police-stations with specific styles were built at different places in the city during the reign of Mahmud II. Examples such as Galata, Nişantaşı and Arnavutköy police-stations were studied. If the architectural examples are seen at the reign of Abdülhamit II. foreign architects' main works are appeared. -viii - Valaury - Ralmondo d'Aranco - Giullo Mongeri - Jachmund - Otto Ritter - Helmuth Cuno At the same time as the ammunition Building, military barracks and its hospital, Abdülhamit II fountain and custom house were built in Trabzon. The third chapter is about the style of the building and its history. Although different opinions exist about the history of the building in different references, we get the right information from the Albums of Yıldız Palace. The building was used by the Russian Army between 1916 and 1919 and on the 10 th. of July, 1919 it was explored. The general properties of the building are as follows: The walls are built from stone. The greatest part of the garden wall, Which surrounded the building, was demolished. As a result of the explosion, all roof covers and floors were destroyed. A very important detail, belonging to the building, is the air-conditioning holes for ventilation. In the inner spaces, no paths of stairs were found. At some parts of the walls, the masonry was destroyed. Only seven of the steel rods exist between the outer walls and inner tower. On the inner walls, at floor level, some set-backs exist. Windows on outer walls are mostly destroyed. The outer walls of the building was yellow. On the entrance side, no epigraph over the door exist. The imperial monogram of Abdulhamit II. on the building was destroyed as time went by. Although some of the windows are full of stones, most of them are empty. Two window jambs were changed. Because Eastern facade was blocked by stones, it could not be drawn. The structural members of the building are examined. - The base - The walls - The roof -IX- The stone material which was used in the building, is andezit. It does not have decorations. The most important decoration is the imperial monogram. The building has been heavily damaged by people. The wooden parts, such as the floor and the roof construction and their coverings, the doors and the inner stairs are all gone. The fourth chapter contains the reconstitution drawings of the Ammunition building and the police-station which does not exist today. After looking through many sources, documents, photographs very limited information could be found about the building. There are old photographes which are taken from the Yıldız Albums. The sizes and details were determined from what is left on the building itself. The clues about the physcial structure of the building are examined. It was quite difficult to achieve a complete restitution work. The restoration drawings and comments are the subjects of the last chapter. The building is a historic document from its period. The new function to be given should not harm and destroy the characteristics of the building. We propose the reuse of the Ammunition building as a Cultural Center. It is necessary to intervene the building in order to preserve and maintain it. The techniques are: - Cleaning - Renovation - Re - integration - Re-construction - New additions. Because the garden walls belonging to the building are destroyed, the heap of stones and soil covering the eastern facade should be cleaned. Trees and grasses grown on the land should be dried up. Hederas on the walls also should be dried up by chemical methods. Renovation and re-integration of the structural elements and deteriorated materials (such as the stones, window jambs, steps). Re-construction of the parts which do not exist today (such as the toilets, the inner stairs, the floor and roof construction and their coverings, wooden elements of the windows and doors. New additions which are necessary for the new function (such as the partition walls, electric, heating and water system). - x - We hope that; ammunition building will be restored scientifically and according to its original characteristics.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Osmanlı mimarisi ; Restorasyon; Trabzon, Ottoman architecture ;Restoration ; Trabzon