Zamanda Barınan Tasarım: Çocuklar İçin Etkin Öğrenme Mekanları Oluşturmak

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Tarih
2013-02-21
Yazarlar
Kay, İpek
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Tasarımcı, bitmiş bir ürün ortaya çıkarmayı amaç edinmek yerine, tamamlanmamış bir yapı oluşturarak, tasarım sürecinin ardında yapının çevresiyle ve kullanıcılarının programlanmamış eylemleriyle dönüşerek sürdürülebilir bir yapı oluşmasını sağlayabilir. Sürdürülebilirliğe ilişkin genel yaklaşımlar teknoloji ve ekoloji merkezli yapısal çözümlerdir. Fakat yapının sürdürülebilirliği, içinde yaşayan kullanıcıların etkinliğinden ayrı değerlendirilebilir mi? Bu çalışmada etkin kullanıcı yaklaşımıyla sürdürülebilirlik kavramından farklılaşan zamanda barınan tasarım, yapının hem tasarımcı hem de kullanıcıları ile beraber dönüşmesini içine alan bir üst kavram olarak kullanılmıştır. Tasarım sürecinin uzantısı olan mekan ile her kullanıcının kurduğu ilişki farklıdır. Tez kapsamında, mekanın sadece mimarlar tarafından değil, kullanıcıları ve bulunduğu çevre tarafından da üretilmeye devam ettiğini öne süren tartışmalar, kullanıcıların yapının içerisinde etkin olmalarına olanak sağlayan eğitim yapıları üzerinden ele alınmaktadır. Tasarım süreci, ortaya çıkacak yapıda oluşacak yaşayış biçimlerine dair bilgileri içinde barındırabilir. Bu çalışmada, yapının kullanıcıları ve çevresi tarafından dönüştürülmesine zemin hazırlayan bir tasarım süreci, tamamlanmamış bilgi ortaya koyarak kendi problemlerini yaratan ve bilginin zaman içinde gelişmesine olanak tanıyan yanlışlama yöntemi ile beraber ele alınmıştır. Bilim adamının çoğulcu deneme hareketlerinin öne çıktığı yanlışlama yöntemi, yaparak ve keşfederek öğrenen çocuğun bilgi edinme sürecine benzer. Bu nedenle, zamanda barınan yapıyı oluşturan kullanıcıların etkinlikleri, çocuğun kendi dünyasıyla sürekli etkileşim halinde olarak bilgiyi kurmasına ve keşfetmesine olanak sağlayan yapılar üzerinden araştırılmıştır. Ele alınan yapıların ortak noktası, tasarımcı tarafından belirlenmiş sınırlar içerisinde, kullanıcıların mekan deneyimleriyle yeniden kurulmaya açık olmalarıdır. Bu çalışmada, mekansal deneyimlerin de bilgi edinmenin bir yolu olabileceği vurgulanmıştır. Bu görüşten hareketle, çocukların (kullanıcıların) değişen araç, medya ve teknolojilerle, yeni eğitim anlayışlarıyla yeni bir çevreyi nasıl kurguladıkları incelenerek, tasarlanmış bir yapının içerisinde etkin olma durumları belirtilmiştir. Bilgi edinmenin deneyim yoluyla gerçekleştiği vurgulanırken öne çıkarılmak istenen, deneyim ihtiyacı veya deneyim değil, bilgi edinme deneyiminin hangi koşullar altında ve hangi biçimde gerçekleştiği sorularıyla mimarlıkta bir yol açmaktır. Bu çalışma aynı zamanda yöntem ve kullanıma dair farklı bir yaklaşımla sürdürülebilir tasarıma yönelik yeni bir tanım oluşturma amacını da taşımaktadır.
Instead of aiming to create a definitive work, the designer can constitute an incomplete structure and by that can lead up his product to a sustainable structure which transforms constantly in time by its surrounding and users’ unscheduled actions right after the design process. The relationship that each user establishes between self and the space which is the extension of a design process is different. This study argue that space is not only produced by architects but also continuously by its users and the environment where it is present. Discussions draw points from some educational buildings which allow users to be effective in it. The concept of dwelling in time associates with sustaining an active individual. This is a different approach than sustainability as it is generally used in reference to energy consumption. What is sustained here is the relationship between the designer, the design, and the user who is interacting with the design. The concept particularly emphasizes a dynamic process that contains the subject and his/her experiences. In this respect, dwelling in time is interrelated with the notion of social sustainability. Within the framework of this concept, as new bonds are established between these notions, our ways to approach to design and process of design may be transformed. The design process may foresee the possibilities for ways of living in the building. This thesis considers a design progression which allows the building to be transformed by its users and environment. It does so through the methodology of falsifying which allows the knowledge to progress and grow in time and positively creates its own problems by putting forward incomplete information. The flexible approaches such as soft system and non-liner design process stress that learning is a continuing process while the formation of knowledge lasts. With reference to these flexible approaches, it can be said that as long as new users inhabit a space, that space sustains to be rebuilt by new subjects. Arrangement of practical conditions is important for the designer to establish an interaction between these conditions and those of the users. The boundary that is defined by the designer, determines the flexibility of the building and prepares the ground for users to uncover that flexibility. The conditions of experience can be described as interaction and continuity. It is a necessity to constitute flexible practical conditions for the expression of comments and criticisms in order to convert experiences into an active repertoire. Spatial experiences are key in learning. This thesis defines children’s (user’s) ways of being active learners in a designed building. Rather than the need for experience and experience activity, it emphasizes how and in what conditions acquiring experience happens and how these questions guide the architectural design. Five different categories are identified for children’s active learning ways and environments. The first two investigate active learning through interacting with the nature and social environment. The other two categories deal with more subjective and inward-looking activities, such as learning by doing and abstract thinking. In the last category, transforming ways of learning through the transformation of learning environment are investigated within the framework of flexible learning. Educational approaches discussed as methodology (falsification, soft system, nonlinear process) emphasize flexibility and open to change and also transform depending on time and situation. This framework is indicative to create the substrate for the aspects of new technological environment. In this way, space becomes the continued part of changing educational paradigms from teacher-centered to learner-centered. In this context, the substrate becomes an alternative embodiment for monotype educational buildings in Turkey. Architectural works that provide flexible environments to children in order for them to learn through themselves do so in different ways. The exemplary setups featured in this study are: Gardener Schools (Bahçıvan Okulları) that established learning by doing method as education in Turkey, Village Institutes (Köy Enstitüleri) that can be seen as the continuation of this approach, and Forest Schools (Waldkindergarten) that are based on Friedrich Fröbel’s approach and appeared first in Germany and later in several other European countries. On the other hand, the initiative “Another School is Possible” (Başka Bir Okul Mümkün) that I have taken part in personally as an architectural aid becomes a tool to explore the knowledge put to use and gained within these approaches. Learning happens all the time and everywhere. The ultimate goal of the study on design that dwells in time is to open the way for guiding principles for designers towards designing the learning places of the digital age that sustain the values of the hands-on experiences that are still valid. Inferences from the spatial schemas which address ways of active learning, are also grouped into five categories. These constitute a dimension that informs how users become active in conjunction with others: 1. Pluralistic Setting: Constituting a Focus The first category, pluralistic setting is a condition of possibility for individuals to hear their own voices and express themselves to others. The pattern which constitutes a focus through designing flexible places, can provide active learning environments for children. 2. Participative Boundary: Embodying an Inter-subjective Communication This community consists of individuals that are aware of their uniqueness. Participative boundary implies the enclosed conditions of this community. Reactions and reflections of individuals co-exist. Learner and teacher continuously substitute one another, rather than in a constant process formed by an active teacher and passive learners or audience. 3. Bridge That Allows Interaction: Defining Fragments The third category gives the path for the enclosed community that is mentioned above in order to open towards the culture and geography that they belong to. Bridge refers to an interface between inside and outside. This situation provides flexible boundary that allows social interaction. 4. Interface That Allows Practices: Participating in Community In this category, the interface is examined in terms of practical experiences for the community in interacting with local elements. 5. Place That Envisions Body Movements: Discovering Routes The final category can be explained as the return of the individuals to their inner conditions and body. The mutual influences of the body and environment is affected by mental schemas. The use of places determines these schemas through performances of the body. When categories are created, the path leading to this thesis follows from the child’s inner world to his relationship with the community. In the last category, the path comes back to child’s inner world through his body. This act is essential for transforming accumulated experiences into his active situation that is constructed to participate in community. These categories can be taken as approaches for designing. However, the intended scope of this study is only to articulate issues on the interactions between space and users/environments that reveal the transformative effects of time. This can affect the approach of defining boundaries by designer in design process. This study emphasizes on the plurality and relies on differences. Instead of defining specific new environments, the suggested approach of the study reveals constituent layers to investigate different aspects from the current status quo. The duality between epistemological and practical aspects is integrated with the methods that emphasize on flexibility and are dealing with the learning environments.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
Anahtar kelimeler
yanlışlama, etkin ogrenme, yaparak ogrenme, sosyal surdurulebilirlik, falsification, active learning, learning by doing, social sustainability
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