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Title: Xv.-xvı. Yüzyıllarda Kullanılan Türk Musikisi Sazları
Authors: Özgen, İhsan
Acar, Ezel
Türk Müziği
Turkish Music
Keywords: Müzik
15. Yüzyıl
16. Yüzyıl
Müzik aletleri
Türk müziği
Fine Arts
15. Century
16. Century
Musical instruments
Turkish music
Issue Date: 1994
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu çalışmamda XV. - XVI. Yüzyıllarda kullanılan Türk Musikisi çalgıları ve Musikimize etkileri araştırıl mıştır, önce, genel olarak bu çalgıların gelişimine deği nilmiş, ilkçağlardan başlayarak günümüze kadar devam eden çalışmalar ve çeşitli dönemlerde geçirdiği evrimler ince lenmiştir. Bu dönemlerde kullanılmış çalgıların etimolo jik incelenmesi üzerinde durulmuştur. Türk Musikisi çalgılarının gelişimi konusunda günümüze kadar yapılan ve hala devam eden çalışmalar ban a ışık tuttu.Kanımca tarihin derinliklerinde saklı kalmıs olan Türk Ça lgılarını daha iyi tanımak,tarih sentezindeki boşlukları doldurmak ve Türk Musikisi yetişme koşulları içinde genç kuşaklara,özellikl e Organoloji alanında derinleşmek isteyenlere en iyi şekilde tanıtmak, ilerid eki çalışmalar için neler yapılabileceğini tesbit etmek,biz araştırmacıların önemli görevi olmalıdır.
The following is a study of Turkish instruments, which are a significant part of Turkish culture, have had on social issues and our music. Turkish instrumentss have been used throughout central Asia, Egypt, Iran, Syria and Anatolia for centu- rie., As central Asian civilizations flourished, cultural exchange developed. With the Turk's accaptance of Islam as a religion at the end of the 9 th century A.D. came the integration of eastern and western culture. This in turn, led to the development of different music forms. The stringed instruments used today come from central Asia. In documents belonging to the early ages, there is metion of stringed and percussion instruments. These instruments were also used by other tribes and cultures and have affected their development. According to current knowledge, the number of instruments, that have been used in different times and places, is about theree hundred. Since the earliest times, various kinds of wood, plants, leather, animal guts, hair, bone, horn, and even some sea creatures have - VI - been used to make the instruments. In the naming of them either the sound made by the instruments or the const ruction material or the shape has been the source of the name. The simplest instruments that were used were clap ping hands ar hitting two solid materials together. Sin ce early times, gongs and bells were used. These are part of the percussion group, a sub - group of the percussion group, a sub - group of the Idiophones, instruments which. create their own special sounds or merely add to the rhythm of the music. In the medievel period, the common forms were bowls, sheets, and plates. In the la ter periods, there were other forms : "Fincan - Saz", "Şişe", and so on. The consussion instruments, which are used to provide rythm to the music, are mode varied. The earliest were the "Zil", the "Çalpara", and others. In the medievel were period, cymbals were also called "Sane". Later on, instruments such as the "Halile", the "Zilli - maşa", and the "Şakşak" were used. The Chordophones which compose the second group of instruments that actually make the melody, are thought to have been derived from the bow. The sounds of these instruments are perhaps wearker but richer com pared to the perivious ones. Stringed instruments, whether or not they are used with bows, are indoor instruments. Those used with bows and plectrums were differentiated between during olden times. Apparently for the early Turks, the words "ok" or "kıyak" were used for "yay" (meaning bow). An - VII - example of this is "Okça - Kopuz". The kemencha bow and the "Kıyak" lyrics sung to the kemencha carry very old Turkish culture forms. The Turkish "Iklığ" kemencha implies many ideas and meannings to the people using it. All of the various groups of stringed instruments converge at one point. They tell of love and respect; they yearn for and beseech God. many heroic epics and Dede korkut stories have been sung with the accompani ment of these who listen to this music become unified Patriotic feelling became renewed and strengthened in this way. Hostilities were overcome and people were reconciled. Listening to the lyrics and music brought out feelins. For centuries, stringed instruments have unifi ed peoples nationalistic bonds. When considering Turkish instruments, one must delve deeply into the historical past of Turkish - spe aking people. The fact that there are few documents in existence and because of inadeguate storage and keeping of existing documents, it is difficult to foollow deve lopments in this area of music. Theoretical commentaries in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic are the main source of our musical history. More over, there are historicial and literary works such as the "Şuara Tezkireleri" which shed light on this area. Farabi and Ibni Sina have given us invaluable suorces of information on Turkish instruments used - VIII - throughout Türkistan and Anatolia. In later years, Safi- yüddin Abdülmümin ' s research and theories in this field helped enlighten scholars in this field. Meragalı Abdül- kadir's work on eastern Islamic music and musical inst ruments added tho this store of knowledge. It is known that the Turks have shown their excitement and pleasure throught their love of music. Archeological remains and written documents snow that people att all social levels have cherished music. As in all primitive societies, erly Turkish cultures used mu sic to attain religious unity also. türkish musical instruments have taken on many forms troughout history. Some have come down to us today in their original forms and some have been developed and improved. These should be protected today as our cul tural heritage should be. The loss of these instruments would eventually be a reflection on the culture itself. Of noteworhy importance is that research should be done ih the area of development and modernization of Turkish musical instruments in order to establish and measure their range. Recently religious music has started to play an important part in our musical culture. It is necassary to establish it further in order to preserve our culture and allow it to live on and flourish. In the 17 th century, the Turkish traveller, Ev liya Çelebi, who for fourty years travelled the provinces - IX - of the Ottoman Empire, wrote his famous ten - volume "Se yahatname". Travelling from Anatolia to Vienna to Iran, he gathered information on Turkish music in the 17 th century. His first volume alone was devoted to Istanbul. Most of the Turkish musical instruments have been borrowed by their neighbors, particularly the kopuz, the boru, the zurna, the bilir, the düdük, the çevgan and the davul. The work of Professor Laurence Piçken, an English musicologist who has done research on the inst ruments used in Turkish folk music is very valuable. Turkish folk tradition has mixed into the strin ged instruments used by minstrels. These instruments are called family, nomad, and country instrument. Much of the research mentioned in the above is but a small segment of the history of Turkish music. Much has been lost in historical sources from olden times and through the translation of very old languages. However it is a starting point for those young music scholars who will continue to do research into the field.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
Appears in Collections:Türk Müziği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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