Türk Halk Müziğinde Aşık Veysel'in Yeri Ve Önemi

Bahşi, Baki
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Tarih boyunca insan toplulukları soylarını devam ettirmek ve doğaya karşı kendilerini korumak için birarada yaşamışlarda. Kendi yapısı içinde sevgisi ve kavrayışı güçlü insanlar, buldukları düşünceleri güzel ifadelerle ortaya koymuşlardır. Giderek bunlara halk âşığı, halk sanatçısı ya da sanatçı denmiştir. Bunlar, çevrenin etkisi ve geleneğin doğal yapısı içinde eğitilmiş, sonra da kendileri birer eğitmen görevi üstlenmişlerdir. Âşık Veysel, yirminci yüzyıl halk müziğimiz ve halk edebiyatımız içinde önemli bir temsilcimizdir. Gözlerini yedi yaşında kaybeden ve hiç okula gidemeyen bir insanın çok farklı konularda özlü sözler söylemiş olması, düşündürücüdür. Tasavvuf, aşk, doğa, okul, bilim, teknoloji ve toplumsal sorunlar cumhuriyet sonrası, eserlerinde ustalıkla işlenmiştir. Eserlerini köyünde duyduğu dil ile söylemiştir. O dönemin dilini eski Anadolu Türkçesi, Arapça ve Farsça ile renklendirmiştir. Yedi yaşından soma öğrendiği bağlama ile siklerine ve türkü formundaki eserlerine eşlik etmiştir. Bağlama düzeni (akordu) ile çalışı gösterişten uzak, bütünüyle sözlerinin tamamlayıcısı gibidir. Şiirlerini hece ölçüsü ile söylemiştir. Bütün eserlerinde sesleniş yönü toplumdur. Kendine göre öncelikli bulduğu konulan, edebî sanatlar kullanarak işlemiş ve topluma sunmuştur. İnsanlara kendi bildiklerim anlatmak, yanlış bulduklarını eleştirmek, böylece toplumsal dokuyu güçlendirmek istemiştir. Bu amaçla köy, kasaba, şehir dolaşmış ve eserlerini insanlara ulaştırmıştır.
Throughout the sweep of history men have straggled against nature to continue their races, to protect themselves and to live in better conditions. Every man has relatively taken port in this straggle in comparison with his own skills and talents and the ones who differ, have produced works to reveal the difference. "Şamans" have been the outstanding and different ones because of their talents within Turkish traditions. Şamans have always been the directors, programmers of the hunting ceremonies and have effected people around them with their imitation capacities. In time, the duties they have taken over in society have increased and a division of duties had take made. Movement, gesture and mimic studies have come together within a musical respect so as to create folk music. People who are called Şaman, kam, oyun, alan, ozan and aşık are all called as "wondering minstrels" at present time. Âşık Veysel is one of the most important and preeminent minstrels of the twentieth century in Turkey. His Life He was born in the city of Sivas, Şarkışla administrative district, Sivrialan village. The small pox he had when he was seven ended up with the loss of one of his eyes. Then he had an accident and lost the second one with a poor eye-sight and became blind completely. He learned to play the "bağlama", which his father had bought for him to spend his spare time, with the help of people in his environment. Firstly he sang folk tunes which are called as "usta malı" the belongings of the master. On January. 5. 1931 he participated the minstrels ceremonies in Sivas and was given a "Folk Poet Certificate". He wrote his fust poem for the loth VI anniversary of Turkish Republic and his work which he named after "Atatürk" made his name well known throughout the country. He joined a programme in Istanbul Radio House with Mesut Cemil, and after this radio programme he managed to make his voice know in every corner of the country where the radio could reach. In 1941 he was given a position as "a master" in Village Institutions so he had the chance to teach them to play the saz and folk tunes. In 1952 he had his jubilee in Istanbul. He was accepted by the president Cemal Gürsel in 1963. Then in 1965 it was decided that he should be given a salary with the decision of the parliament as a reward of his contributions to our native language and national unity. His Works Six books which he collected his 157 poems. A long play which belongs to Melody Records Archive, a cassette for wonder records and another one for Nesa Records. A long metre film called "The Dark World of Mine" produced and directed by Metin Erksan (1952) and 12 collected folk tunes for TRT repertoire. His Art People and their way of life is the basic material of minstrels. The environment he was grown in prepared him to life. While he was learning to play his instrument, we made sentences and thought like them. For a short time he talked as he had learned and picked up from the environment he had been living. This period is called "apprenticeship". The sings of matureness lead him to his own style and the period of "proficiency" arrived. The language Âşık Veysel uses in his poetry is Turkish. The impressions of the historic structure of Anatolia can sometimes be noticed in his words in old Anatolian Turkish. Moslem Religion was accepted by Turks and after that they met with Moslem culture as well especially during the Ottoman Empire. VII Arabian, Persian words and completions were added to the language during this term. Âşık Veysel had these adaptations melted among his own Turkish very cleverly and professionally in metre based on the number of syllables and brought Turkish suffixes to Arabian and Persian words. Âşık Veysel who usrate his poems with a metre based on the number of syllables in quatrains, has not used quatrains in only one of them among his 157 works. To pass Kızılırmak in ease Money has been taken from people Efficrency is expected from villages permission from lord God save the nation Had the bridge built and made us happy! Rhymes which are suitable for traditional folk poetry have added another speciality to the poem. If we study the subject of the poems, we notice that they are written on sufism, nature, love, on the national unity or the political problems of the country, the importance of science and technology and the ones relayed to Atatürk and republic. In most of his works what he calls for is the man itself. He managed to tranship his past experiences very professionally to the present and became the seeing eye of the nation although he was blind and the hearing ear as well as the speaking tongue by expressing their feelings. In his poems, he contained divan mazmuns (structures) and used the art of poetry like tecaül-i arif (to feign ignorance) and teşhis (personalization) in his poems proverbs and expressions have been used in a meaning unity without being changed much. When studied from a musical aspect his "bağlama" which was used as an accompaniment gains a lot of importance. VIII His bağlama which he used to play with a "bağlama düzeni" (order) is far away from any demonstration. The message he gives though his folk tunes comes before any others. Following the tradition which was used by most of the saz poets, he sang some of his poems without music and melody but with the accompaniment of his bağlama. Most of his melodies have been effected by (broken tune) kırık hava and in his music "Yahyalı Kerem" scale has been used. Turkish folk music exist because people need it. When his found works have been evaluated today (since şamans until the aşıks of our time) we notice that responding the basic requirements of people have been accepted as the main connection. Defencing himself against nature, continuation of his race, living in a unity and co-operation, the concept towards new things, way of be hariours, love, respect have been chosen as general subject of his works. Aşık Veysel explains his aim with this line and says: "All our perseverance is to be in the service of our country." Sufism, nature, love, national unity and co-operation, school, the importance of education and being educated have all been mentioned or talked about in his poems. Endeavouring to educate people at the time when there were no schools, continued with Âşık Veysel as well. Âşık Veysel who completed his apprenticeship was educated by his environment then reached a period of mastership and began the presentation of his own works. While choosing the social happenings and events, he managed to enlighten the people around him as well. Âşık Veysel who sang Kızılırmak 1, and Kızılırmak 2 because of the continuous overflows, later sang his dasitan called "the forest" to accentuate the importance of trees and the forest. Likewise he sang the dasitan of Atatürk to talk about the importance of Atatürk and the Republic. When the rivalry between the folk tares and songs came into presence he said; since we are Turks, we call for Turks! And when IX the struggle between right and left arose, he revealed his work called "We are the children of this country." Âşık Veysel who produced numerous works to reveal the importance of schools, education worked in a manner as the teacher of the whole country and struggle hard to educate and to enlighten the people of his country. The importance of his works which are done with music are great from the aspect of education and teaching techniques. It is veiy important to educate people in then own language, own enviorement without abusing or boring them in the name of extension education which is still a valid work. We cannot avoid using music in educating man while studying the tradition of minstels with great care and choosing good examples of it.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Aşık Veysel, Aşıklar(Aşıklık geleneği), Halk müziği, Music, Lover Veysel, Minstrel tradition, Folk music, Music