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|Title:||Bdt Ülkelerinin Ekonomik Yapısı Ve Türkiye İle Dış Ticaretleri|
|Other Titles:||Economic Structure Of Cis Countries And Their Foreign Trade With Turkey|
Macun, A. Cengiz
|Keywords:||Ekonomik yapı; Uluslararası ticaret|
Economic structure ;International trade
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||15 yıl önce, yan devletçi yapıdan pazar ekonomisine geçişe karar vererek dış pazarlara açılmaya başlayan Türkiye, bugün dünya pazarlarında ağır rekabet şartlarında ihracat mücadelesini sürdürmektedir. Sovyetler Birliği'nin 1991 yılı sonunda dağılmasıyla oluşan yeni bağımsız cumhuriyetler, Türkiye ve dünyanın diğer ülkeleri için yeni ve büyük bir pazarı oluşturmuştur. Bağımsız Devletler Topluluğu (BDT) ülkeleri oluşturduğu pazar riskleriyle birlikte büyük kazanç fırsatlarında sunmaktadır. BDT ülkeleri petrol, doğal gaz, altın ve çok çeşitli mineral zenginliklere sahiptir. Ayrıca hızlı kalkınmalarına yardımcı olabilecek eğitim ve üretim altyapıları vardır. Fakat finansman ihtiyaçlarıyla birlikte yeni yönetim ve üretim bilgisi ve teknolojisi ihtiyaçları büyüktür. BDT ülkelerinin bağımsızlıklarıyla birlikte pazar ekonomisini benimsemeleri ciddi ekonomik problemleri beraberinde getirmiştir. Yoğun problemlerle geçen bir kaç yıl ve alınan tedbirlerin sonuçlarıyla birlikte, özelleştirme, ihracatta standartlaşma ve benzeri konularda hızlı ilerlemelerin sağlanması topluluk ülkelerinde problemlerin kontrol altına alınmasını ve ekonominin olumlu yöne seyrini sağlamıştır. Türkiye BDT ülkeleriyle olan siyasi ve ekonomik ilişkilerine ayrı bir önem vermektedir. Bu ülkelerin kalkınmalarına destek verecek yatırımların gerçekleşmesi ve ihtiyaç duyulan malların sağlanması için Türk Eximbank kanalıyla finansman sağlamaktadır. Türk müteşebbisleri BDT ülkelerinde etkin bir çalışma içerisindedirler. Bu çalışmada BDT ülkelerinin sosyo ekonomik yapılan incelendikten sonra dış ticaretleri ele alınmakta ve gelişme doğrultulan değerlendirilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu amaçla giriş bölümünü takip eden ikinci bölümde ülkelerin ayrı ayrı sosyo ekonomik özellikleri verilmekte, üçüncü bölümde ise yine ülkeler bazında genel ticaretleri ve Türkiye ile ticaretleri ele alınmaktadır. Dördüncü ve son bölümde ise Türkiye - BDT dış ticaretiyle ilgili "sonuç" değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır.|
15 years ago, Turkey decided to change the mixed economic system she has been pursuing to the market economy system and this change resulted in tremendous development in Turkish economy and exports as well. After break down of USSR, emerging new republics have been developing markets for exporting countries. Under the roof of "Commonwealth of Independent States" (CIS) new republics brought about many opportunities as well as risks for the investors and traders of other countries. CIS countries have very rich underground resources such as oil, natural gas, gold and various other minerals. They have also both physical and cultural infrastructure to develop rapidly. But, they need financial support and, know how to convert their economies into market economies. CIS countries had severe economic problems due to sudden start of market economy just after the breakdown of USSR. But today they are getting better with the developments in privatization, export standardization and adjustments towards a market economy. Turkey attributes special importance to CIS countries and contributes to the developments of these countries by encouraging investments to them, by Turkish companies and by extending loans to them to finance purchases of Turkish goods. Turkish investors, traders and construction companies have been doing business in these countries for a long time either by setting up their own companies or by setting up joint venture companies with local entrepreneurs. In this graduation study of "Economic Structure of CIS Countries and their foreign trade with Turkey" social and economic structures of CIS countries are studied in the second part, their foreign trade in general and with Turkey is examined in the third part and conclusion given as the fourth and last part. Countries subject to this study are, 1. Russia 2. Belarus 3. Ukraine 4. Moldava 5. Azerbaijan 6. Armenia IX 7. Georgia 8. Turkmenistan 9. Uzbekistan ] 0. Kazakhstan 1 1. Kırgızhstan 12. Tajikistan and summary information on these countries are given below. 1. Russia Population of Russia is 148 million, of this, 74,8 million is working and 30 million is employed in private sector and producing %70 of services. In 1994 share of services was more than industries with %50,5. Russia has rich natural resources. She has 15% and 80% of world reserves of oil and naural gas respectively. Total exports of Russia was 48 billion $ in 1994, of this, %30 was metals industry outputs, %8 chemicals, %4 forestry and paper, and %45 was fuel and energy sector out puts. Arms sale is an important item in Russia's exports. Only first 6 monthly sales of 1,5 billion $ in 1994 shows how important arms sales are for Russia. Total imports was 28,1 billion $ in 1994. Shares of foodstuff, machines and equipment, chemicals, textiles and readymade wear and iron and non iron metals were %29.2, %34, %10.7, %6.8 and %3. 5 respectively. Turkey ranks 14. in imports and 13. in exports as of the end of first 6 months among the countries with which Russia trades. Turkey exported 423.173.000,- $ and imported 856.915.000,- $ from Russia in first 6 months of 1995. 2. Belarus Belarus is an industrial country, with a population of 10,3 million, of which %68 are living in cities. Industry and agriculture provides %42 and %19 of total employment respectively. More than %50 in imports. Machinery and equipment, transport vehicles, chemicals, fertilizers, forestry and confections are important export items. In imports, foodstuff, machinery and equipment, medical equipment and consumer goods are important items. In first 6 months, Turkey has exported 590.000 $ and imported 5.618.000 $ worth of goods to and from Belarus. 3. Ukraine Population is 52,2 million of which 26,1 million are working %75 of employment is provided by production sector (industry and agriculture) and remainning %25 is services sector. She ranks after Russia in terms of self sufficiency and economic development among CIS countries. Ukraine has rich natural resources. Reserves of coal and iron is estimated as, 50 billion tons and 30 billion tons respectively. January - September 1994 figures of exports and imports are 7,6 billion $ and 8 billion $ respectively. Imports consist of oil, notural gas, paper and technological equipment. Important exports items are, industrial goods and ores. Turkey's trade in first 6 months of 1995 with Ukraine was 70.449.000 $ exports and 377.670.000 $ imports. 4. Moldova Population is 4,5 million, Industrial sector provides %28, agricultural sector provides %36 of employment. Total foreign trade volume in 1994 is 1,2 billion $ foodstuff, wine and processed food, tobacco, electrical appliances, textiles and leather are important export items. Imports of energy represent an important portion of total imports. As of the end of first 6 months of 1995 Turkey has exported 1.618.000 $ wort of goods to and imported 4.251.000 $ worth of goods from Moldova. 5. Azerbaijan Population is 7,5 million, %37 and %16 of 2,7 million working population is employed in agriculture and industry respectively. Most important wealth of the country is oil, reserves of which is estimated as 8 billion tons. In 1995 Turkey's first 6 monthly foreign trade figures with Azerbaijan was 56.922.000 $ exports and 5.865.000 $ imports. 6. Armenia A border neighbour country with 3,3 million population. Due to the embargo because of "Karabag" problem, Turkey has no foreign trade relations with this country. XI 7. Georgia Population is 5,5 million and %58,8 is employed. %29,2 and %23,5 of total employment are provided by agricultural and industrial sectors respectively. Georgia, having black sea coast, is one of the important passage country of "Black Sea Ring Corridor" project. Export goods are, iron and non iron metals, agricultural goods, spirits and tobacco. Imported goods are, oil, natural gas, electricity, grain, machinery and equipment. Turkey's foreign trade with Georgia in first 6 months of 1995 was 20.995.000 $ exports and 3 1.282.000 $ imports. 8. Turkmenistan Population is 4,3 million, 2 million employed, %42 is working in agriculture and %19 is working in industry. The country having rich natural resources, is an important natural gas producer and seller. Export goods are; oil, natural gas, cotton. Imported goods are; machinery and equipment, foodstuff, grain, medicine and chemicals. Turkmenistan has surplus in foreign trade. In first 6 months of 1995, Turkey's exports to and imports from Turkmenistan was 25.231.000 $ and 78.950.000 $ respectively. 9. Uzbekistan Population is 22,2 million. Working population is employed by %44,4 in, agricultural sector and %21,1 in industrial and construction sectors. Agricultural sector creates %25,5 and industrial and construction sector create %40 of GDP. Uzbekistan has rich natural resources such as gold, natural gas and oil. And ranks 4. in cotton production in the world. Consequently, cotton is most important export item. Turkeys foreign trade with Uzbekistan in first 6 months of 1995 was 42.182.000 $ and 39.947.000 $ imports. XII 10. Kazakhstan 5.3 million working population of total 17.3 million is employed by %18,2 in agriculture and by %17.3 in industrial sector. Agriculture represents °o47.7 and industry represents 0/o40.6 of net production. Kazakhstan has rich natural resources. Besides various minerals, oil and natural gas reserves are important. Turkey has exported 67. 39". 000 S and imported 29.330.000 $ worth of goods in first 6 months of 1995. 11. Kirgizhstan Population is 4.4S million l.S million is employed by %38.2 in agriculture and by %25.1 in industry. Agricultural production represents 0o43 and industrial production represent %39 of GDP. Besides natural resources, water reserves are important. Total volume of foreign trade it. 19v4 was 738.3 million $ which consists of 340 million S exports and 398.3 million S imports. Turkey has exported to and imported from Kirgizhstan in first 6 months of 1 995 10.718.000 $ and 2.979.000 S respectively. 12. Tajikistan Population is 5.2 million The country has rich water reserves and hydroelectric power production, agriculture and livestock are important sectors. Turkey has exported to and imported from Tajikistan in first 6 months of 1995 4.218.000 $ and 4.748.000 ressectivelv.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||İşletme Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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