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|Title:||Sedad Hakkı Eldem Binalarının Analizi|
|Other Titles:||The Analysis Of Sedad Hakki Eldem Buildings|
History of Architecture
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||"Sedad Hakkı Eldem' in Binalarının Analizi" adlı tez, altı ana bölümü kapsamaktadır. Tezin birinci bölümü giriş bölümüdür. Bu bölümde konunun seçilme nedenleri, tezin amaç, kapsamı ve hazırlanmasında izlenen metodlar ile çalışmalarda karşılaşılan zorluklara değinilerek, baz; binalann neden çalışma kapsamı dışında bırakıldığı anlatılmaya çalışılmıştır. İkinci bölümde, Sedad Hakkı Eldem' in hayatı incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma yapılırken, ailesi, çocukluk, gençlik ve çalışma yıllarının üzerinde detaylı olarak durulmuştur. Ailesinin anlatıldığı kısımda Eldem' in kökleri anlatılmış, yetiştiği çevredeki insanların Türk kültürüne çeşitli yönlerden nasıl katkıda bulunmuş oldukları belirtilmiştir. Eldem' in çocukluk ve gençlik yıllarında ki öğrenim hayatı hakkında bilgi verilmiş, Avrupa stajı sırasındaki çalışmaları anlatılmıştır. Çalışma yıllan kısmında ise 1930' dan ölümü olan 1988' e kadar hazırladığı projeler, gerçekleştirdiği binalar Türk mimarisinin o dönemdeki tarihsel gelişimi paralelinde anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde ise Eldem' in mimari formasyonunu etkileyen faktörler, mesleğe başlarken içinde bulunduğu mimarlık ortamı ve mimarlık eğitimini aldığı kurum olan Güzel Sanatlar Akademisinin o dönemdeki durumu hakkında kısa bilgiler verilmiştir. 20. yüzyıl başındaki mimarlık ortamı 19. yüzyıl mimarisine tepki olarak gelişmiş olduğu bilinmektedir. Geçmiş üslupların tekran ve bu ortama tepki olarak gelişen modernizim hareketlerinin incelenmesi Eldem' in mimari eğitimini aldığı ortamın irdelenmesine ışık tutmuştuştur. Dördüncü bölümde Eldem' in gerçekleşmiş olan binalarının katalogu bulunmaktadır. Bu dönem tarihsel kronolojiye göre hazırlanmış olup, binalarının karakteristik olanlarından bazıları seçilmiştir. Beşinci bölümde Eldem binalarının analizi yapılmıştır. Eldem fikirlerinin bire bir tatbikatı ve pek çoğu gerçekleşmiş olan bu binaları çeşitli yönlerden incelemek için çeşitli esaslara göre gruplamak mümkündür. Bu çalışmada binalar tarihsel süreklilik perspektifinden incelenmiştir. Aynca buna parelel olarak, binalar planlama ve dış biçimlenme yönleri ile de ele alınmıştır. Altıncı bölüm olan sonuç bölümünde ise ikinci, üçüncü ve dördüncü bölümde analizi yapılan çalışmalardan çıkarılan sonuç sunulmuştur.|
From the point of the importance of the Sedad Hakkı Eldem buildings in the Turkish Architecture, in this thesis the vindication of those buildings with the history has been examined. The Thesis is composed of six parts. The first part is the introduction and here the reasons why the subject was chosen, the aim the scope of the thesis and the methods used in preparation of the thesis are explained. Besides in this part some of the difficulties that has arose during the realization of the study have been pointed out and the reason why some of his buildings not included in the study explained. In the second part, the life of Sedad Hakkı Eldem, with his family, childhood, the youth years and the professional life studied with the same sub-titles. Under the sub-title family, Eldem's roots are observed. The people surrounding in which he has grown up, have made many valuable additions in several aspects to Turkish culture. Both of Eldem's families represent the nineteenth century Ottoman Social System's upper strata. His mother's grandfather was Sakızlı Edhem Paşa a French educated engineer. As a politician turned bureaucrat he occupied ministerial posts and briefly served as the grand Visier. He was also one of the first Ottoman intellectuals striving for the international recognition of Ottoman art and architecture. One of his sons, Osman Hâmdi Bey a law/ artist, was the founder director of both the Imperial Museum of Antiques and the school of Fine Arts. Paşa's third son Edhem Galip Bey, a bureaucrat and numismatist, were Eldem's grand father. His childhood and youth years are among the years' 1914-1930. During these years, Eldem has studied in the high school in Europe and in 1924, he has attended the academy. The curriculum of the Academy was based on the French Ecole des Beaux Arts. Students began by learning Classical Orders and gradually went on to composing larger buildings whose elements were usually derived from studies of antique and the exemplars. Students were encouraged to get out and sketch. Walking in the historical precincts of Istanbul to discover the beauty of the urban houses. His master in the atelier was Guilio Mongeri an Italian architect educator, designer, of some major buildings in Istanbul and Ankara. Sedad Hakkı Eldem assisted him during the vacations. After completing the academy, in his apprentice in Europe, he had the chance of working together with the important architects of the periods such as Le Corbusier and Perret. In Paris, under the tutelage of August Perret and guidance of Le Corbusier, whom he intermittently visited, he eagerly tried to develop his skills. xv A iot was happenings in Germany in those years.: The Bauhaus was about to move to Berlin, Mies van der Rohe just built the German pavilion at Barcelona International Exhibition and the Weissenhof Estate at Stutgart almost finished. The tut brothers and the planners Martin Maehler and Fritz Schumacher were amongst the most influenial figures of the era. During these years, he had several exibitions. Under "his working years" sub- title, his life during the years 1930 -1988 has been alluded. In this part his "national architectural seminary", which he has started during the academy years,his projects, those buildings that he has realized has been explained in the parallel of the Turkish architectural improvements in that period. During the study tours he made to England, Lutyens architecture, specially his ongoing work in India provided him an opportunity to re- assess his judgment on the First National Architecture Movement. In 1930, when Eldem has started his academic career, the reforms initiated by Swiss architect educator Ernst Egli aiming to tech Modem architecture in a contemporary manner, departing from the Beaux arts tradition were already underway. Architectural studies thought were still unpopular. During Egli years, only some of the students were graduated and the total numbers of architects practicing were about two hundred. With the impact of the Depression in the 1930s Turkey entered an era of New Nationalism. State Ideology focused on the nationalism, populism, etatism and accordingly protectionism highly influenced the community. In the Third part, the factor which has influenced Sedad Hakkı Eldem's formation has been explained. In this part same summary of the Sedad Hakkı Eldem's starting to his professional carrier, the architectural condition and the conditions of the academy and fine arts that he has graduated has been given. The architectural ideas in the beginning of twentieth century, come as a reaction to the nineteenth century architecture. In this period the repetition of the previous styles and the various modernist movements growing as a reaction to them has been grown up. In the study of this term it has been used the term which Eldem has taken his architectural education. The general trend that has shown up in Ottoman Empire in nineteen centuries is the eclecticism that has grown up in European architecture in the same period. After the declaration of the second constitutional era together with the ittihat Terakki considered as national architecture then started a period of changing to Ottoman Style. In the beginning of the republic years, the limited numbers of the architects almost all this style and has been aware of the improvements in the West. Under the title" the status of the Academy of Fine arts in the beginning of the twentieth century " it has been related with the situation of the academy in this period.The structural change in the architecture in the beginning of the twentieth century reflected to the school which Eldem has taken his architectural training. And Eldem, living these passing period certainly secured his future of his architectural understandings' foundations. xvi Under the title" Foundation of the Sanayi-i Nefise and the tradition of Ecoie des Beaux Arts M The school establishment and the genera! structure of the school has been studied in the architectural section of school which has been established by Osman Hamdi in 1882 painting, sculpture, engraving sections also took place As the French Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. This institute has become the main support of the Neo Classicism in Europe. This institute has become the strongest institute of the world, at the third quarter of the nineteenth century. The architectural section at the school has been established by Vallaury. The training system in parallel of Vallaunys domination continued in the period of Mongeri and Vedat Tek. Among the years 1930- 40, it has been made serious forms in the high educational institutions in Turkey. By bringing specialist persons from Europe, it has been tried to reinforce the training institutions. The first important effort until the establishment of the academy in the architectural section by Egli. With Egli, it has been started to give a rational functional training parallel to the German architectural training in Turkey. In this period, the national architectural styles were completely abandoned. The international styles that the German architects used were applied. Eldem, started in his academic career that the influence of academy was so powerful. The fourth part consists the catalogues of his realized buildings. The buildings are listed in a chronological order. This period has been prepared chronically and sum of his characteristic buildings has been chosen. At first, the address of the building, the construction date is mentioned. Then the building is taken into consideration by way of site plans and the normal plans. Afterwards the massive structure is analized according to the elevations. The fifth part is the analisation of the Eldem building in order to study the buildings. In order to study the building from the different points, those buildings that are the applications of the Eldem Ideas. And Most of them realized is necessary to part them in several groups. In this study, the building has been studies from the prospective of the historic continuity. The buildings are analyzed in two categories. These are The historical attitudes of the buildings and the modern attitude of the buildings. Under the name of the sub title, the buildings studied from the point of their planning and their external directing. External shaping, the bulk expression, the repetition, modulation has also been considered.While doing this, comparisons are made between the buildings. On anaiizing the modern attitudes, again plan schemes and facial expressions are taken into consideration. The sixtieth part is the conclusions And it has been the following conclusions. It has been realized that Sedad Hakkı Eldem, in his buildings that have been completed in his life long try has tried to construct a strong bridge between the past and the present. Eldem has formatted these trials in several ways. His way of using history as a reference is the nineteenth century Ankara and Istanbul yalı, Kiosk and Konak architecture, in these cities, the buildings that were designed for wealthy people at the same time inspiring from yah, kiosk and konaks for xvii the Ottoman empire elite bridging the past and today., Eidem's these trials not only by the view of architecture but also socially related to the past. Eldem has used the plan schemes of the building types that has found its function in the past by changing them if necessary. From this point of view, in the plan schemes of the embassy building that are named as House or residences are seen that he has used the center or the internal sofa type that occurred in the eighteenth century. in the plan schemes of the university buildings, he used the "avlulu medrese" plan scheme types. In the modem age buildings that he has not found, its function in the past such as hotel, apartments, office buildings and hospitals. He preferred to use a functionalism way of free planning. To create articulate inner spaces that are introverted aesthetically Eastern once again used the traditional methodology. The traditional architectural codes, when translated into contemporary vocabulary, could also re-emerge as a synthesis through sublimation. Two and tree store high inner central spaces of some residential units of the Topkapi Palace were used as spatial models. The deterministic pattern exhibited in all these prototypes actually proves Eidem's hypothesis: that traditional buildings are both complex and simple summaries of a single, coherent architectural culture. Since the structural perfectionism is already achieved the vernacular designers' builders are free to focus their individualistic talents to create spatial variations in different kinds of buildings. It can be realized that Eldem most frequently used the Turkish house motives such as wide open eaves "cumba" and "çıkma" while doing this, he has emphasized the functional futures of the Turkish house from foundation to the roof, hence the relation which Eidem has established with the past By using these elements in the early times as in the Şark Coffee House almost the same nearly reached the sense of imitation. In his late buildings, these motives are seen to be used abstract meanings. Eldem has also used the repetition understanding in Turkish Architecture very often as an emhesising element. In his buildings, structure, dual and tripled window groups and vertical plaster in this sense shown as an emphasizing element. Elder widening this sense to the Turkish "mahalle" sense, used them in bringing together with the building groups such as Yıldız mahallesi, zeyrek Külliyesi, which have new functions. With all these, Eldem used the modulation under standing in Turkish architecture in his design continuously, the type of his usage has reached different synthesis parallel to his flourishing. In his early trials, the frontal of the buildings has been plastered, the realization of the modulation reached by the windows. In the late 1960 onwards periods, the modulation in the front, obtained by precast or reinforced- concrete elements and windows reached the maximum dimensions. The modulation that has been put forward in the frontal, under the xviii building, and the internal surface facing and even in the roof using contrast elements reached unity of style. Modulation is a synthesis that Eldem realized in the historic continuity and is the most important characteristic design element. Although in his early periods realizing buildings under the pure functionalist frame and within the international line boundaries international line he has seen out of his general line, his attitude of Eldem gains an important view when it is seen chronologically, Eldem's main source of inspiration for designing has always been the Turkish House. But in the1940s his philosophy shafted to a new and much wider field of design exploration: to rediscover, retrieve and revive some traditional codes in a contextual manner. Eldem has carried out of his search between the modem and the tradition along all his lifetime working period. In the years of 1930 when he has started his studies related with the traditional Turkish house, to project complete modern buildings in parallel to purism line such as Bayan Firdevs Evi and SATIE is the result of his in between modem and tradition After his working resulting in 1950' s,in an international Manner parallel to European architecture, joining his abstract studies with tradition finally realized them in abstract and reached a characteristic Eldem Style.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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