Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16652
Title: Konya çevresindeki volkanik tüflerin yapı malzemesi olarak değerlendirilmesi ve özelliklerinin belirlenmesi üzerine bir araştırma
Authors: Gürdal, Erol
Koçu, Nazım
68884
Yapı Bilimleri
Construction Sciences
Keywords: Konya
Volkanik tüf
Yapı malzemeleri
Konya
Volcanic tuff
Building materials
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu çalışmada Konya çevresindeki volkanik bir tüftin yapı malzemesi olarak değerlendirilmesi için puzolanik aktivite özelliğinden yararlanarak elde edilen mamul ürünlerinin fiziksel, mekanik, kimyasal özelliklerinin araştırılması ve mikroyapı özelliklerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Tez altı bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölüm giriş bölümü olup konunun önemi, kısa bir tanıtımı kullanılan yöntemler kısaca açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde araştırmanın amacı, gerekçesi açıklanarak, araştırmanın kap samı ve beklenen yararlar özetlenmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmanın bilimsel, teknolojik yararları ile ekonomik ve sosyal katkıları açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde literatür araştırmasına yer verilmiştir. Konu ile ilgili olarak, puzolanların ve kireçlerin tanımı, tarihçesi, sınıflandırılması yapılmıştır. Türkiye ve Konya çevresindeki puzolan, kireç konusunda yapılan araştırmalar taranarak puzolanik aktivite deneyindeki reaksiyonun nasıl gerçekleştiği belirtilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde doktora konusu olarak seçilen malzeme ve metodları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Konya çevresindeki hammaddeler ve endüstriyel artık ürünlerin bağlayıcılık özelliğinin olup olmadığı konusunda ön araştırma yapılmış, doktora konusuna karar verilmiştir. Bu bölümde araştırmada kullanılan malzemeler, malzemelerin tanımı, özellikleri TS. 25'e göre puzolanik aktivite özelliğinin olup olmadığı, deney programı, kabul edilen ilkeler, karışım hesaplan, malzemelerin ha zırlanması, karıştırma, koruma, ısıtma koşulları, numune boyutları, sayıları ve kodlanması yapılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise deneyler yapılmıştır. Deneyler fiziksel, mekanik, kimyasal özellikler ve mikroyapı araştırması olmak üzere üç ana başlık al tında incelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar fotoğraf ve grafiklerle açıklanmıştır. Bu bölümün sonunda ise deney neticeleri değerlendirilmiş ve irdelenmiştir. Genel sonuçları içeren altıncı bölümde ise SiC^'ce zengin volkanik tüflerden oluşan kireç-puzolan tuğlasının üretim aşamasında dikkat edilecek hususlar açıklanmıştır. Tezde fiziksel, mekanik, kimyasal, mikroyapıya ait özellikler sıralanmış ayrıca bölge yapı endüstrisine nasıl katkıda bulunacağı ve bundan sonra ne tip araştırmalar yapılacağı maddeler halinde belirtilmiştir.
The resources of the current raw materials in our country being used in the building sector is an important subject. As it is known, the role and importance of the current raw materials in removing the deficiency of building materials in our country is very big. Whereas, in this study of a doctor's degree the evaluation of a volcanic tufa as building material in the area around Konya and an investigation on determining its characteristics has been aimed. While investigating the materials found in the area around Konya, the waste of factories and the current raw materials in that area were collected and recorded. The samples were brought to the "Building Material Laboratory of the Architectural Faculty of İstanbul' Technical University and classified. After that, materials with a high binding feature were chosen and the investigation field of the doctor's degree was determined. In this way the planned material will be an alternative to cement, brick, and if necessary for wall elements with cavity for atmospheric vaccum (Aerated conc rete). With this material being produced by the help of regional facilities, eco nomical, as well as high mechanical strength elements producing thermal insulation, will be obtained. Pre-experiments in this subject have brought positive results. Benefitting from the volcanic tufa in the area around Konya, building ele ments of atmospheric vaccum cavity may be produced whose lime-grits and pores can be arranged without using cement. The doctor's degree consists of six chapters. 1. In the introductory part, though here is rapid growth of our country's po pulation, modernizations of building materials have remained scarcely. For this re ason regional raw materials have to be used for modernizing current materials. The xx new materials, however, must have a sufficient proportion of mechanical.strength; and have to be resistant to physical, chemical and biological conditions. The volcanic tufa in the area around Konya contains a high proportion of active SİO2 and is gro und easily. In the doctor's degree, however, the problem of investigating production fa cilities of elements which are strong and suitable to scientific conditions, which are of high mechanical strength and long-living, and which have pore proportions being determined by wish, has been introduced and the subject has been discussed. In the second chapter the aim and reasons for choosing the subject of the doctor's degree are presented; also the content of the investigation and the utilities which are expected have been determined. In the experiment, prepared according to TS.25 and TS.819 (Rilem-Cembureau), with special silica sand, in bending 7 days, the tract for thai has been 4.87 N/mm2, however Ihe mean for compressive strength has been found 24.6 N/mm2. In determining the minimum bending for TS.25 the results have been found 4.8 times more than the tractional strength, and 6.15 times more than the comp ressive strength. Since the volcanic tufa has a binding feature with Ca(OH)2, it is aimed to use it in the construction sector and develop it as a wall element. The literature investigation follows in the third section. The definitions, background and classifications regarding pozzolan are made. They have been divided into two, namely natural and artificial. The material used in this study is classified in the natural pozzolan group. Some information is also given about the volcanic tufas in this section. The tufas are classified according to the proportion of SİO2 % within the material. In the chemical analysis of a volcanic tufa obtained from the area around Konya, 66.56% Si02, 10,13% Fe203 and 3.08% A1203 have been found. Thus, the material differs between neutral and acid rocks and is classified in the group of dacite. Besides this, the conditions of the pozzolanic materials in Turkey and in the area around Konya have been stated, and studies in this field have been mentioned. However in the field of lime, the definition of lime, its background, method of pro duction and classification have been made. Investigations regarding limes in and aro und Konya have been studied. In the experiment of the pozzolanic activity, the sub ject, namely, how the lime pozzolanic reaction takes place, has been investigated. In the fourth section, some information on materials and methods which have been chosen for the subject of the doctor's degree, is given. Pre-investigations XXI and the specific grayity 2.325 gr/cm3. The mean of the unite volume weight for a volcanic tufa has been 1.259 gr./cm3, the manufactured material however varies bet ween 1.005-1.246 gr/cm3. The proportion of bulk water absorption in raw materials ranges between 29.10-42.96 %, the proportion of volumetric water absorption in raw materials ranges between 31.8-48.4 %. Water absorption in boiling water in raw ma-, terials takes 41.4 %, in manufactured materials it varies between 34.2-52.9 %; the vi sible perosity in raw materials varies between 37.8-51.4 %, in manufactured material it varies between 45.9-56.6 %. Experiments which have been made by the mercury porositat and the diameter dimensions of pores have been given by graphics and the porosity percentage has been calculated. The filling proportion (compassity) has been given. According to TS. 639, raw material was found 2.55 % in the moisture de termination, however it has been said that it needs maximum 10 % for using it as pozzolan. The heating loss was found 8.25 % The solidity experiment was made Shore D. Din 53-505, ASTM D 2240 with a priifen model equipment, the valency for raw material was dedared min 62.62, max 74.12, in the manufactured product this valency was 70.1, max 83.8 %. The ultrasound velocity in raw material varies bet ween 1.899 km/s-2.351 km/s, in manufactured materials it is between 2.041 km/s- 2.397 km/s. The ultrasound velocity and thestatic elasticity module in the manufactured product vary from 9.585 N/mm2- 13.237 N/mm2. The capillarity coefficient in the raw material varies from 0.0585 cm/Vmin- 0.07 cm/Vmin, and in the manufactured product it varies between 0.0282-0. 1 097 cm/Vmin. According to TS. 25, the produced material with standardized sand has been found 0.0392 cnVVmin. The heat conductivity coefficient, however, has been applied on 3 items of different sets of material and this value varies from 0.5866 W/mK to 0.7058 W/mK. The valency' of the vapour difusion strength factor, though, has been found in the raw material 32.97, according to TS. 25 in the produced material it was 59.89, while in the manufactured material it was min: 35.76 and max. 198.00. The graphics of barograph heat and humidity (hydrograph) proportion has been given by appendix. The compressive strength in the raw material is of a proportion of 12.33 N/ mm2 in manufactured material (etuve) between minimum 15.19 N/mm2, and ma ximum 30.4 N/mm2 however in auloclaving it is between minimum 20.3 N/mm2, maximum 28.5 N/mm2. XXIV In the strength experiment to frost effects, no defect has been seen in ma terial numbered 70 30 45, 70 35 45, 70 40 45, 80 30 45, 90 30 45 and in the ex periment made according to TS 639, a diversion cracking has been hardly seen. The loss of frost in the volcanic raw material has been found 0.61%, the compressive strength of frost extremity was found 1 1.42 N/mm2, in binding-, tractional 2.94 N/mm2, and in the compressive strength because of the effects of frost, 7.38% decrease were seen. In the niineralogical analysis made with the X-Rays Difraclometry, a high proportion of jarosite, a low proportion of quartz, opal cristobalit and opal amorph is found in the raw material. Even if there is a composition in the manufactured ma terial similiar to the raw material, new formations resulting from a chemical reaction have taken place. In the manufactured material, proportions of jarosite, quartz, opal cristobal ite, opal amorph have changed and turned into calcium silicate and gypsum. However in the composition of the manufactured material in SEM, the light contrasts are the glasslike parts of calcium silicates. Light contrasts contain calcium, elements of a high* atom number contain iron; dark contrasts contain silicium, ele ments containing aluminium, and the very dark ones are the cavities between. In the sixth chapter, the results and suggestions are given; the volcanic tufas in the area around Konya contain 66.56 SİO2. For this reason the tufas can be clas sified in the class of acid rocks. (Acid rocks contain more than 66% SİO2). The AI2O3 + Fe2Û3 + SİO2 proportion affecting the pozzolanic activity within the ma terial which is 79.77%, goes beyond the limits of 70% determined in TS. 25. The SO4 proportion has been determined 6.67%. It has been said that the SO4 proportion mustn't be over 3%. But since the SO4 and (OH)2 undergo a chemical reaction in a certain heat (50-120°C), CaS04. 2H20 (Gypsum) and Ca3Si05 (Calcium Silicate) are formed. These new formations haven't done any harm to the manufactured ma terial. According to this, the produced material being kept out 1 day in 70°C etuve (a moist condition) and after 7 days may reach a compressive strength of maximum 31.0 N/mm2. When this experiment is applied 10 hours in autoclaving in 120°C, the loss of time has been decreased and reduced to 10 hours. Thus, the maximum comp ressive strength is of a level of 28.5 N/mm2. As a result, it is appropriate to use the manufactured material as wall element. XXV and the specific grayity 2.325 gr/cm3. The mean of the unite volume weight for a volcanic tufa has been 1.259 gr./cm3, the manufactured material however varies bet ween 1.005-1.246 gr/cm3. The proportion of bulk water absorption in raw materials ranges between 29.10-42.96 %, the proportion of volumetric water absorption in raw materials ranges between 31.8-48.4 %. Water absorption in boiling water in raw ma-, terials takes 41.4 %, in manufactured materials it varies between 34.2-52.9 %; the vi sible perosity in raw materials varies between 37.8-51.4 %, in manufactured material it varies between 45.9-56.6 %. Experiments which have been made by the mercury porositat and the diameter dimensions of pores have been given by graphics and the porosity percentage has been calculated. The filling proportion (compassity) has been given. According to TS. 639, raw material was found 2.55 % in the moisture de termination, however it has been said that it needs maximum 10 % for using it as pozzolan. The heating loss was found 8.25 % The solidity experiment was made Shore D. Din 53-505, ASTM D 2240 with a priifen model equipment, the valency for raw material was dedared min 62.62, max 74.12, in the manufactured product this valency was 70.1, max 83.8 %. The ultrasound velocity in raw material varies bet ween 1.899 km/s-2.351 km/s, in manufactured materials it is between 2.041 km/s- 2.397 km/s. The ultrasound velocity and thestatic elasticity module in the manufactured product vary from 9.585 N/mm2- 13.237 N/mm2. The capillarity coefficient in the raw material varies from 0.0585 cm/Vmin- 0.07 cm/Vmin, and in the manufactured product it varies between 0.0282-0. 1 097 cm/Vmin. According to TS. 25, the produced material with standardized sand has been found 0.0392 cnVVmin. The heat conductivity coefficient, however, has been applied on 3 items of different sets of material and this value varies from 0.5866 W/mK to 0.7058 W/mK. The valency' of the vapour difusion strength factor, though, has been found in the raw material 32.97, according to TS. 25 in the produced material it was 59.89, while in the manufactured material it was min: 35.76 and max. 198.00. The graphics of barograph heat and humidity (hydrograph) proportion has been given by appendix. The compressive strength in the raw material is of a proportion of 12.33 N/ mm2 in manufactured material (etuve) between minimum 15.19 N/mm2, and ma ximum 30.4 N/mm2 however in auloclaving it is between minimum 20.3 N/mm2, maximum 28.5 N/mm2. XXIV In the strength experiment to frost effects, no defect has been seen in ma terial numbered 70 30 45, 70 35 45, 70 40 45, 80 30 45, 90 30 45 and in the ex periment made according to TS 639, a diversion cracking has been hardly seen. The loss of frost in the volcanic raw material has been found 0.61%, the compressive strength of frost extremity was found 1 1.42 N/mm2, in binding-, tractional 2.94 N/mm2, and in the compressive strength because of the effects of frost, 7.38% decrease were seen. In the niineralogical analysis made with the X-Rays Difraclometry, a high proportion of jarosite, a low proportion of quartz, opal cristobalit and opal amorph is found in the raw material. Even if there is a composition in the manufactured ma terial similiar to the raw material, new formations resulting from a chemical reaction have taken place. In the manufactured material, proportions of jarosite, quartz, opal cristobal ite, opal amorph have changed and turned into calcium silicate and gypsum. However in the composition of the manufactured material in SEM, the light contrasts are the glasslike parts of calcium silicates. Light contrasts contain calcium, elements of a high* atom number contain iron; dark contrasts contain silicium, ele ments containing aluminium, and the very dark ones are the cavities between. In the sixth chapter, the results and suggestions are given; the volcanic tufas in the area around Konya contain 66.56 SİO2. For this reason the tufas can be clas sified in the class of acid rocks. (Acid rocks contain more than 66% SİO2). The AI2O3 + Fe2Û3 + SİO2 proportion affecting the pozzolanic activity within the ma terial which is 79.77%, goes beyond the limits of 70% determined in TS. 25. The SO4 proportion has been determined 6.67%. It has been said that the SO4 proportion mustn't be over 3%. But since the SO4 and (OH)2 undergo a chemical reaction in a certain heat (50-120°C), CaS04. 2H20 (Gypsum) and Ca3Si05 (Calcium Silicate) are formed. These new formations haven't done any harm to the manufactured ma terial. According to this, the produced material being kept out 1 day in 70°C etuve (a moist condition) and after 7 days may reach a compressive strength of maximum 31.0 N/mm2. When this experiment is applied 10 hours in autoclaving in 120°C, the loss of time has been decreased and reduced to 10 hours. Thus, the maximum comp ressive strength is of a level of 28.5 N/mm2. As a result, it is appropriate to use the manufactured material as wall element.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16652
Appears in Collections:Yapı Bilimleri Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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