Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/15282
Title: Haliç Bölgesi Değişimine Bağlı Olarak Fener Semtinde Kentsel Değişim
Other Titles: Urban Change In Fener Neighboorhood: Based On The Change Of Golden Horn
Authors: Ergun, Nilgün
Malkoç, Elif Nazlı
10041656
Kentsel Tasarım
Urban Design
Keywords: Kentsel Değişim
Soylulaştırma
Kentsel Yenileme
Urban Change
Gentrification
Urban Renewal
Issue Date: 8-Jul-2014
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Abstract: Kentsel gelecekle ilgili düşünceler değerlendirildiğinde şehirlerin modernizasyon süreçlerinin kentsel dönüşümün bir tarihi haline dönüştüğü görülmektedir.Bu süreçte kentler yayılmış, dağılmış, ağ haline gelmiş ve hiç olmadıkları kadar hiper gerçek hale gelmişlerdir. Bu durumda, kentsel peyzaj çok çarpıcı bir biçimde değişim göstermektedir. Dünya çapında küreselleşme, teknolojik gelişmeler, ekonominin yeniden formüle edilmesi ve postmodernist gelişmeler nedeniyle 80’li yıllar pek çok kentsel problem üretmiş, bu problemleri çözmek için çok farklı yaklaşımlar geliştirilmiştir. Tüm bu radikal değişimler kentsel alanları değişime zorlamış,bu değişimlerle beraber post-fordist üretim süreçleri geride pek çok terkedilmiş endüstriyel alan bırakmıştır.  Mekânsal ve sosyal değişimin genel adı olarak kentsel dönüşüm,yaşandığı yerdeki sakinlerin zaman içinde başka yere taşınmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu süreç dönüşümün hayal edilen ile fiziksel gerçekliğinin arasındaki çelişkiyi vurgularken birbirlerine zıt düştüklerini de göstermektedir.    Türkiye’de kentsel dönüşüm önceleri sadece gecekondu yenileme projeleri iken, 80’li yıllarda pazar ekonomisine geçişle birlikte gayrimenkul yatırım aracı haline dönmüştür. Modernist ve postmodernist süreçlerin birlikte yaşandığı İstanbul’da kentin çok katmanlı okumasını yapmak plancı, mimar ve peyzaj mimarlığı disiplinleri için bir zorunluluk haline gelmiştir.  Bu çalışma, Fener semtinde varolan kentsel dokuyu inceleyip kavramsallaştırarak, kentsel peyzaj değişiminin karmaşık süreçlerinin toplumsal ve coğrafi bağlamda okumasını yapmayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın yöntemi, niteliksel araştırmayı bir alan çalışması ile destekleyerek, ilgili ulusal ve uluslararası literatür incelemelerini mevcut hükümete ait planlama kararlarının analiziyle birleştirmekte, seçilen alanın mekansal organizasyonunu geliştirilen sosyo-mekansal haritalamalarla temsil  edilmesini amaçlamaktadır. Kentsel değişim sürecinin mekânsal ve toplumsal etkileşimlerini gösterebilmek amacıyla kapsamlı bir görsel dökümantasyon yapılmıştır. Seçilen semt sakinlerinin, kendi toplumsal ve yapılı çevreleriyle ilişkili gündelik pratiklerini ve gelecek hayallerini anlamak için açık uçlu görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak Fener semtinde kentsel değişim süreçleri incelenmiş kentsel dinamikleri orataya konmaya çalışılarak tartışmaya açılmıştır.
Evaluating the urban future thoughts chronicle, it can be seen the modernizaton processes of the cities became urban transformation history. As  we live the urban future of our past, cities are sprawled, dispersed, networked, and became as hyper real as they could be. Urban landscapes are being dramatically changed. Across the world, globalization, technological developments, re-formulations of the economy and the postmodernism leads the era of 80’s into the urban problems and different approaches have been generated to solve these problems. This radical changes forced urban areas to change. Post fordist production generates its own space leaving brownfields behind.  Modern does not mean just new, as a word. Historically modern is a word referring to renaissance and reform. The processes as we call modernization in the nineteenth century affected the whole European social culture. In this regard modern is a new consciousness level. Two notions emerges through the  joining of modernism and enlightenment thought. These are positivism and secularism. First of these is used for emphasizing the hegemony of the mankind on the experimental information over nature.        Urban transformation in Turkey has been revaluationed as a real estate investment within the era of transition to market economy in 80’s. Thus there has emerged a new dimension of the transformation process, aside from squatter housing renewals. Modernist and postmodernist acts are seem to happen together in İstanbul, that it had became a must to read the urban as a multilayered complexity.    Design intervention in the city requires an understanding of these hidden powers operating in the city, and an understanding of the ways in which the users of the space desire, as well as need to be empowered to live within it.   Urban renewal and reconstruction was the frequently used transformation tool in the developed western countries after the second World war. Afterwards, in need of different approaches and alterations different tools emerged such as urban regeneration, rehabilitation, restoration, conservation  etc. After the second World war the issues of urban renewal increased. İn the midst 50s and through the 60s the etnic cleareance isssues increased and in the mid 60s it was doubtfull to demolish all the buildings. Through the end of the 60s it became more and more important to reconstruct the old sites with as much as protection. İn the 70s and 80s ethnic cleareance was over and demolishing the old town settlementes were stopped and started to reconstruct with conservation.  In USA there were more and more public and private initiatives for black communities in 90s and 2000s. This process of reconstruction resulted of displacement of many afroamericans. Many academicians said that it was a return to the old times of urban renewal. In Shanghay and Beijing culture is a new important tool for dealing with the urban problems and to achieve a new economy. In Germany Postdam Square was demolished after the World war and divided into two at the edge of the west and east Berlin.it became very famous for the urban renewal subjects. In England postwar Thatcher era dominant planning logic was an intend to demolish all the working class and make everyone middle class. İn London urban change process can be seen in four criterias. First middle class was so crowded that it could provide people for gentrification and suburbanization. Secondly, the working class inside the ciy core was shifting to the suburbs. Thirdly, the city was allowing immigrants all the time. And fourth is deindustrilization was letting grow of the central financial districts and science parks.           Gentrification welcomes the studies of the urban social change in the old city cores. Old city cores are the traditional old town settlements in the city centres. Gentrification emerged as an interest of middle and upper classes in renovating the old historical buildings in the city cores. The process changed in paralell with the economic and political changes over urbanity on the last decade. Urban transformation has been a powerfull tool for the government on restructuring the urban land. Especially on the historical city cores this process have had a lot of social problems.  Urban transformation as a means of spatial and social change, forces local residents to deterritorialise. This process shows the conflict between physical reality and imagined reality of transformation, where they collide in. And this process of social change is called gentrification.  The governments intend to create urban oases with removing the poor image of the urban areas by the displacement of the poor inhabitants through the outskirts of the city centres.  By doing so old bourgeise intends to leave the old town but the new bourgeise intends to reexplore the old city core.  But also there are many different aproaches of the gentrification process because they are based on the different observations of the different types of urban fabrics. However the research has two very important themes. These themes are the production of the space and the consumption of the space. These themes leds the urban area becoming either a rovanchist or an emancipatory city. This kind of differentation is used in urban researches as well.  In all kinds of processes gentrification needs a huge spatial reconstruction.  Halic is an important quarter through the history with its seashore line. It had dense industrial land in the late Ottoman and early Republican time. There were factories, slaughter houses and docklands in the area. In paralell with the transition to neoliberal economy industrial infrastructure has been removed from the area.  Some of the factories were removed to the more further places and some of them were closed, many of the warehouses, ateliers and smaller buildings were demolished and instead there built many parks and recreational areas.  Between 2003 and 2010 TOKI constructed 500000 units as part of the gecekondu renewal projects and new social housing, not only in the three big cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir but also in Bursa, Elazig,Erzurum, Erzincan, Gaziantep, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Trabzon and elsewhere. While these practices supplied housing fort he demand, they participated in the homogenization of the built environment throughout the country, by using standardized regulations and similar residential projects. Hardly any of them explored architecturally creative ways to improve the quality of life and space. There are many ongoing transformation projects on this area these days. Neslisah and Hatice Sultan districts are the completed examples of transformation projects. The unique architecture of Fener and Balat neighborhoods has been the focus of international efforts during the last decade. Besides the neighborhoods attracted the local governments interest and the area became an urban transformation area in 2006.  İstanbul’s Fatih and Beyoglu municipalities have launched the Tarlabasi and Fener Balat Ayvansaray uran renewl projects in the heart of Galata – Beyoglu and on the Golden Horn shore of the historical peninsula respectively, both neighborhoods formerly populated during the Ottoman Empire by sizeable Greek, Jewish and Armenian communities. GAP Construction and Development Group won both contracts and invited many academics and practising architects to develop proposals. These span a wide spectrum from more nostalgic, theme park style reconstructions  of imagined or idealized Ottoman mahalles to more modernist but site-specific interventions derived from analytical and typological studies of the existing fabric.    Fostering the qualitative research with a case study, the methodology of the research integrates the relevant national and international literature reviewes, combinining the analysis of current municipal and governmental planning tools and application of developed socio-spatial mappings of the chosen area in order to represent and narrate the territorial organizations of the current neighborhood pattern.  Semi-structured interviews have been made with local residents to capture their everyday experiences and future dreams in relation to their social and built environment.  An extensive visual documentation and mappings of neighborhood change and personal observations in the locality is also made to determine the spatial and social interacts of transformation process.  Consequently this study attempts to develop a hybrid reading of the complex processes of the urban landscape change in Fener in regard to social and geographical context of urban transformation.
Description: (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
(M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/15282
Appears in Collections:Kentsel Tasarım Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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