Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13325
Title: Kitlesel Fonlamanın  ürün Tasarımcıları İçin Sunduğu Fırsatlar: Türkiye’deki Kitlesel Fonlama Platformları Üzerine Bir İnceleme
Other Titles: Opportunities Of Crowdfunding For Product Designers:A Research On The Crowdfunding Platforms In Turkey
Authors: Er, Özlem
Büyükpilavcı, Cem
10059831
Endüstri ürünleri Tasarımı
Design of Industrial Products
Keywords: Kitlesel Fonlama
Kitle Kaynak
Girişimcilik
Crowdfunding
Crowdsourcing
Entrepreneurship
Issue Date: 26-Dec-2014
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Temelde, yaratıcı fikirlerin ticarileştirilmesi olarak tanımlanan, şirketlerin ve ekonomilerin gelişip rekabetçi pozisyonlarını koruyabilmesi için önem arz eden inovasyonun içeriğinde, uygulama biçiminde ve kaynağında,  birtakım değişimler olduğu gözlenmektedir. İnovasyona konu olan faaliyetlerin artık sadece ticari işletmeler tarafından yapılmadığı, çeşitli platformlar aracılığıyla bireylerin ve bireylerin oluşturduğu işlevsel toplulukların da  fikirlerini olgunlaştırıp  ticarileştirebildikleri ya da toplum yararı için paylaşabildikleri görülmektedir. Bir anlamda, inovasyon yapmak giderek demokratikleşmekte, tabana yayılmaktadır.  Bu genel  izlenimden yola çıkılarak, ilgili bağlamın daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi amacıyla, literatür araştırması yardımıyla, inovasyon alanında yaşanan ilgili gelişmeler, ortaya çıkan yeni yaklaşımlar, eşlik eden   iş modelleri ve platformlar  tespit edilmiş; bu oluşumların inovasyonun demokratikleşmesine ne tür  katkı sağladıkları, bağlantılı  oldukları   teknolojik gelişmeler ve toplumsal akımlarla birlikte ele alınarak irdelenmiştir. Oluşmakta olan bu ekosisteme ilişkin öngörüler anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır.  Dünyada yaşanan gelişmelerin Türkiye’de ne derece uygulama alanı bulduğunu   anlayabilmek  amacıyla literatür araştırmasına Türkiye özelinde devam edilmiş; tespit edilen  girişimler ve platformlar dünyadaki öncüllerinin genel  özellikleri kıstas alınarak değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmuş ve sınıflandırılmıştır.  Özellikle ABD’de son yıllarda büyük bir başarı yakalamış “kitlesel fonlama” iş modelinin, Türkiye’de de girişimciler tarafından ilgi gördüğü  ve  yeni platformların  kurulmaya başlandığı görülmüştür. Temelde, geleneksel fonlama yöntemlerine alternatif olarak doğan ve özünde önemli dinamikler barındıran bu platformlar, farklı disiplinlerdeki yaratıcı projelerin hayata geçirilmesine aracılık etmekte, tasarımlarını ticarileştirmek  isteyen tasarımcılar ya da ilgili kişiler için de çeşitli fırsatlar sunmaktadır.  Girişimci ve yenilikçi toplumların  yaratılması için önemli potansiyele sahip olduğu belirtilen bu platformların, dünya genelinde hükümetler tarafından desteklenmeye başladığı görülmektedir. Kitlesel fonlamanın tasarımcılar için arz ettiği önemin yanında, gelişmekte olan ülke  statüsündeki Türkiye’nin yeniliğe ve girişimciliğe olan ihtiyacı da göz önüne  alındığında, Türkiye’de kurulmaya başlanan kitlesel fonlama platformlarının durumunun irdelenmesine karar verilmiştir. Bu karardan hareketle tezin ana amacı “Türkiye’deki kitlesel fonlama sisteminin ortaya çıkışını, gelişim sürecini araştırmak ve sistemin ürün tasarımcıları için arz ettiği bugünkü durumu incelemek” olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, birincil kaynaklardan  bilgiye ulaşabilmek için kitlesel fonlama platformlarının sahipleriyle ya da temsilcileriyle ve konu hakkında bilgi ve deneyim  sahibi olan kişilerle  görüşme tekniği kullanılarak, literatür araştırmasıyla da desteklenen bir araştırma yürütülmesine karar verilmiştir. Görüşmelerde yöneltilen sorular, literatür araştırmasında elde edilen verilerin ve  dünyadaki başarılı örneklerin incelenmesi sonucu ulaşılan bilginin ışığında oluşturulmuştur.  Türkiye’de faaliyette bulunan dört kitlesel fonlama platformu hakkında derinlemesine literatür taraması yapılmış, elde edilen veriler raporlanmıştır. Görüşmeyi kabul eden üç platformun sahibiyle / yetkilisiyle, ikisi yüzyüze; bir tanesi internet ortamında olmak üzere görüşmeler yapılıp, bu kişilere açık uçlu sorular yöneltilmiştir; sorular yöneltilmeden önce hazırlanan raporlar kendilerine  teyit ettirilmiştir. Ayrıca, konu hakkında uzman bir kişiyle yüzyüze; endüstriyel tasarım eğitimi alan ve incelenen platformlardan birinde ürün projesi yayınlayan iki kişiyle internet üzerinden görüşülerek  açık uçlu sorular yöneltilmiştir. Hazine Müsteşarlığı da ziyaret edilerek, ilgili birim yetkililerine aynı şekilde açık uçlu sorular yöneltilmiştir.
Innovation concept which is basically defined as the commercialization of creative ideas, holds importance for the companies countries to develop and stay competitive.  Recently some changes have been observed in the application and sources of innovation.  Innovation processes, which have been applied traditionally within the boundaries of the companies, have started to be applied with the collaboration of the external actors such as universities, consultancies.  With the rising competition concerns of companies and accompanying developments in technology,  users who had been seen as passive actors previously, have started to be regarded as sources of innovation. Some  companies are developing innovative platforms  and business models based on open innovation approach to integrate creative users in value creation processes.   Recent  developments in communication and personal fabrication technologies and accompanying social movements are forming an infrastructure which is called as the  democratization of innovation. Through the mentioned developments, people, amateur or professional can share their creative ideas and projects on several platforms free of charge or can sell them.   The developments that support the democratization of innovation are explained  briefly below:  Technological developments in personal fabrication tools such as 3d printers, and easy to use computer aided design softwares democratize designing and producing products. Emergence of Web 2.0 applications enable people to create content and interact with other people who have  similar interests; enable to form online communities; enable to interact with  companies through user tools such as crowdsourcing and mass customization to join creative processes. Open design movement which follows open source software movement enables people to share digital, product  design files,  online. According to the assigned licenses, the files can be modified and used as inputs in digital fabrication tools.   Global maker movement  encourages people to develop their ideas and produce their prototypes. Maker movement  can be  defined as the post “Do it yourself” movement which is supported by digital manufacturing tools, web 2.0 and open design applications. Maker movement is supported by makerspaces and maker faires worldwide. In these specialized co-working spaces  (which have different types) creative people such as engineers, designers, artists work  together to develop their prototypes, interact with  other creative people and learn from their expertise. There are successful products, especially in the USA, which had been developed in such places and commercialized through crowd funding platforms.  Crowdsourcing applications, which are supported by web 2.0 applications enable companies to interact with large communities  independent from location to solve their business  problems. In other words companies apply open innovation through these tools.  Crowdsourcing  applications include, finding the best solution to a problem (even a scientific one), passing the routine simple jobs to crowds, organizing crowds to co-design innovative products (even cars) and funding which is called crowdfunding. Many product designers have funded their creative projects through crowdfunding platforms  and become entrepreneurs. Crowdfunding provides many opportunities to project  owners such as gaining capital independently, testing the creative product or business idea before execution, conducting marketing research, having feedback from potential customers, creating customer portfolio through pre-sale. Crowd funding is accepted as one of the most promising and revolutionary  funding systems which is important for economic development at the macro level. It has been observed that many product designers fund their creative projects through these platforms; establish their businesses and even create globally known brands followingly.  It has been observed that emerging business models and platforms which support the democratization of innovation and entrepreneurship in the world have also been founded in Turkey.  Due to importance and popularity of crowdfunding phenomenon, the crowdfunding platforms  in Turkey were decided to be examined.  There are basicly three models of crowdfuding. Most common one is reward based. Others are lending based and equity based models. As methodology literature review and semi-structured  interview methods were decided to be undertaken. Interviews were conducted with the founders/ representatives of three platforms in Turkey; with an expert who has  knowledge and experience in the system and two  users of the system who have studied industrial design.  Additionally the Under Secretariat of Treasury of Turkey was visited to obtain reliable information if they have a plan regarding crowdfunding. Currently there are 4 crowd funding platforms in Turkey. First one was established in 2011. All have reward based crowdfunding model which is quite similar to the leading platforms such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo. According to the experts, although it is not very functional, there has been an forming entrepreneurship ecosystem in Turkey. Due to the scarce capital and the reluctance of investors  in Turkey to invest in the first stages of start-ups, crowd funding is considered  to be a promising   solution for the local entrepreneurs. There are  some problems of the crowd funding system in Turkey such as, the lack of trust to the system; few backers and few quality project input. Some projects owners do not trust in the system considering that their ideas will be stolen. This attitude is a barrier for the platforms to source quality projects. With few projects, the system struggles to promote itself. Therefore the “crowd” part remains insufficient. To overcome, the platforms need bigger and quality projects. It is also stated that with the development of the entrepreneurial  spirit, crowd funding  will also develop. Due to few backers, the project owners have to fund their project in their own  community. Also viral marketing is not functional enough which cause the project owners to work much harder to spread their projects. On the other hand, in the leading  global platforms, projects may be funded by thousands of people. Through functional viral marketing, these projects may reach big communities. The interviewed users inform  that although they could not reach the targeted amount, the feedbacks gained from the interested people were very useful to check their projects. Although they are very confident in crowd funding they do not think that the system  in Turkey work properly.  Since the foundation of the system in 2011,  8 product design projects were submitted and 4 were funded. Although the projects in the leading platforms such as Kickstarter  may be fairly innovative and require advanced production methods, the submitted projects in Turkey  are mainly craft projects to be produced by the owners. Regarding the future of the system in Turkey, Under Secretariat of Treasury of Turkey is conducting a study in equity based crowdfunding model if it is applicable. They inform that their  priority will  be building trust in the system As a conclusion through a properly functioning crowdfunding system, product designers can collect capital by pre-selling their products without the obligation of submitting documents as proof; test the idea if it is demanded and worth to produce; develop  the projects according to the feedbacks; create customer portfolio.  Despite its opportunities, it is emphasized that these platforms should not be regarded as “magic stick”s. The project owners should work hard; behave strategically, be very active during the campaign; should have knowledge. Having a prototype is also suggested for product designers to convince the potential customers.  Due to the stated problems above, the current situation of the crowdfunding system in Turkey is not  fully capable of providing the listed benefits.  According the interviewed users, crowd funding is very beneficial for the product designers but  the current status of the crowd funding system in Turkey may discourage project owners. In the light of the research findings, since the crowdfunding system in Turkey is related to the development of entrepreneurial  spirit and entrepreneurship ecosystem, it can be said that changes in these variables will also influence the crowdfunding system in Turkey.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13325
Appears in Collections:Endüstri Ürünleri Tasarımı Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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