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  • Öge
    The Black Sea fiddle: A case study about Trabzon and Thessaloniki
    (Graduate School, 2023-05-23) Şentürk, Onur ; Öztürk Özgen, Yelda ; Reigle, Robert F. ; 409112004 ; Music
    The kemençe (Black Sea fiddle or Pontic lyra) is a bottle-shaped bowed string instrument from Turkey's Black Sea region. It has an original playing style and repertoire that differentiates it from other bowed instruments. It is one of the most important musical instruments of the Black Sea music tradition. Today, the kemençe is performed not only in the Black Sea region of Turkey but also in Greece, where the Pontic Greeks immigrated from the Black Sea region of Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, the kemençe remains the most significant and symbolic musical instrument for both Greek (Pontic people) and Turkish (Black Sea people) communities. When the playing styles of these two groups are considered, it is possible to observe both similarities and differences. While similarities stem from the common origins shared by the two communities, the reasons for differences can be traced back to changes in the cultural environment of the community, i.e., Pontic Greeks, through immigration and population exchanges. In the last fifteen to twenty years, Black Sea traditional music gained great popularity, reaching a wider audience and increasing the number of people wanting to engage in Black Sea music. Due to this fact, today, there are many kemençe performers among the younger generations compared to the past. Consequently, with the increase in the usage of the internet and cable system networks of mass communication, the cultural bonds between the Black Sea communities of Turkish and Greek heritage had the opportunity to interact with each other. Specifically, this valuable cultural interaction increased between the young generation of kemençe players of both communities. For instance, among the Turkish kemençe players, the different kemençe playing styles found in Greece today has recently become popular, being defined by Turkish kemençe players as Greek style – Rum tavrı. In this dissertation, I aim to analyze the traditional performance of kemençe based on the data gathered from the field research I conducted in Greece and Turkey between 2016-2020. It also discusses the playing techniques, repertory, and evolution of kemençe performance practice through the question, "What is the Greek style- Rum tavrı?". The thesis begins with an introductory chapter outlining the needs for such a study, the objective of the thesis, literature review, and the methodology. Additionally, the first chapter introduces the historical background, construction, and basic playing principles of the kemençe. The second chapter focuses mainly on performance practices of the kemençe and its development with the Pontic community in Greece. Firstly, I provide brief information about the first generation of kemençe players who are this musical culture's bearers. Secondly, I define five distinctive kemençe playing styles and regional aspects through playing techniques and repertory analysis. Then, I mention Gogos Petridis and his impact that caused a dramatic change in kemençe playing practice. The third chapter mainly draws on the kemençe playing practices in Turkey using a similar approach. I provide brief information on significant kemençe performers, who are the bearers of the kemençe music culture and I define five different regions according to stylistic differences, relying on analysis of playing techniques and repertory. The fifth chapter and concluding chapter, summarizes the findings and outcomes concerning the similarities and differences between the playing styles of the two communities, and identifies the avenues for further research. Finally, it answers the question "What is the Greek style- Rum tavrı?" in the light of the data and observations obtained from the research.
  • Öge
    MIXPREP: Machine learning-based multitrack mix preparation assistant
    (Graduate School, 2022-08-12) Yücel, İsmet Emre ; Özdemir, Taylan ; 409152003 ; Music
    Music production is a general term for describing a set of complicated processes where artistic and technical efforts are involved. Besides the artistic part, the technical side of some parts has regular iterative works. This study focuses on the mix preparation step of the multitrack audio mixing stage in music production by seeking an automatic software solution regarding the intelligent music production paradigm. The structure of the dissertation consists of four components: Theoretical background with fundamental definitions of knowledge both in music production analysis, instrument recognition theories and applications, the approach and explanation of the development of the proposed assistant software, and last but not least, an experiment stage comprising of performance testing with many multitrack projects. Before diving into the development stage, the perspective and the definition of the mix preparation are presented after introducing the music production with a brief historical background. Afterwards, delineation of the intelligent music production research field apart from subjective interests takes part. Instrument recognition literature takes an important part in the conceptualization of the automatic mix preparation solution. Because of that, an extensive historical background in the instrument recognition field is given without getting into redundant theoretical aspects. Apart from that, a reasonable amount of information about the definition of the fundamental concepts of digital audio, audio content analysis and machine learning seemed appropriate to be mentioned since the audience of this research addressed the music technology field. After providing the fundamental theoretical background, the software development approach for the mix preparation assistant is presented. This section explains the software structure by stating the basic requirements of the mix preparation regarding design concerns of the graphical user interface (GUI) consideration for practical usage. The main issues are the GUI layout, software usage, and building a dataset with a related machine learning model. Eventually, a loop-based audio dataset creation approach and ML model are put forward by testing their performance with many audio files from 80 multitrack audio projects in four musical genres (Pop, Rock, Jazz, Electronic/Dance). The experiment is set concerning instrument families provided in the dataset and genre-related performance estimations of each one. The results were interpreted by accentuating the crucial points of implementing the ML-based mix preparation solution. Detailed evaluation results are in the appendices. This study proposes a concept of intelligent mix preparation software by providing a methodology for the design concept and application.
  • Öge
    Computational harmonic analysis with rhythmical weights
    (Graduate School, 2022-08-16) İkeda, Ayşe Ruhan ; Karadoğan, Can ; Mazzola, Guerino ; 409132003 ; Music
    Analysis of harmony is the first step in the analysis of common practice (Baroque, Classical and Romantic) period of Western music because in these genres musical structure is aligned with tonal motion and organicity is created primarily by harmony. The analysis includes finding regions of tonality/key, labeling chords and cadences, assigning functions to chords, finding prolonged harmonic functions and consequently forming a tree-like hierarchy. The result of this effort is the discovery of the harmonic motion and how musical entities function within this motion. This is how a music theorist analyses harmony based polyphonic music, i.e., music of the common practice period. A chord's function in its tonal context has an emotional projection that is perceived by the listeners: a harmonic tension that rises or falls, held in a suspension or resolved. A rise in harmonic tension raises an expectation for resolution and its resolution is an emotional relief. The fine balance between increase and decrease in harmonic tension through time is perceived by the emotionally sensitive listener. This ebb and flow in tension is a critical determinant of the aesthetics of harmonic language. In this thesis, we describe an algorithm for harmonic analysis of polyphonic music and demonstrate its implementation on the RUBATO Composer music composition and analysis environment. Our harmonic analysis model completes Riemann's unfinished program by assigning a function to any chord –not only triads and sevenths– based on the pitch content of the chord and the harmonic tension created between consecutive chords. As a background of music modeling, we overview mathematical approaches to music analysis at the symbolic level (i.e., note level and above) and then we examine how computational power can be used for modeling and analysis of music and musical processes. Then, we review similarities as well as differences between music and language and also musical structure analysis methodologies borrowed from linguistics research such as grammars and parsers. In Chapter 3, we give an overview of RUBATO Composer music composition and analysis environment including its historical line of development. We summarize its mathematical pillars and the software architecture. We also describe a number of rubettes that we designed and programmed on RUBATO for computational analysis purposes: a rubette that enables mixing of weights, and another rubette to translate a MIDI file into a MIDI denotator, and another one to be able to trim MIDI files. We also explain a rubette that translates harmonic analysis output to Lilypond, a music typesetting format. In Chapter 4, we give our motivation for computational harmonic analysis by reviewing related concepts such as tonality, harmony and tonal tension as well as a review of computational models for analysis of tonal tension and harmony. In Chapter 5, we describe our mathematical and computational models and their software implementation for analysis of harmony. During this thesis, we added some components to the Computational Harmonic Analysis Network –a suite of rubettes to analyze harmony. The additions are implementation of Viterbi algorithm for optimum path computation and direct-thirds method for Riemann Matrix computation.s The core of the thesis is however is being able to analyze harmony using also metric/rhythmic information of musical events. Our harmonic analysis model had previously assumed that chords have the same metric importance. However as musicians we know that meter in music imposes a hierarchy in perception of musical events in time, i.e., not every instant, and not every beat is equally important during perception. Thus, we extended our model to include metric importance of musical events. In Chapter 6, we give a review of recent research on perception of time and periodicity based on recent neuroscience research. Then, we focus on temporality in perception of music. We consider meter and rhythm as the skeleton system that span time, whereas melody and harmony are the flesh over the bones. This ontological order of where meter and rhythm is primordial is relevant for a vast majority of genres in music including music of the common practice period. Then, we overview metrical analysis algorithm based on Mazzola's metric analytics which reveals local (inner) meters in music and its implementation as the new MetroRubette. Finally, in Chapter 7, we describe a computational model for harmonic analysis of music where, next to pitch content and temporal position of neighboring chords, metric position of chords is also considered. Music is given to the analysis algorithm at a symbolic level as a MIDI file. We explain the new algorithm in detail and also give sample analyses with the algorithm's implementation as software on the RUBATO Composer. We compare harmonic analyses with and without metrical proximity, examine their differences and discuss results.
  • Öge
    Play it all!: String ensembles in the Turkish music industry
    (Graduate School, 2022-06-24) Şener, Serkan ; Oğul, Belma ; Reigle, Robert F ; 409092005 ; Music
    The thesis entitled "Play It All!: String Ensembles in the Turkish Music Industry" issues certain topics related with the phenomenon of string ensembles which have been one of significant elements in the Turkish music industry since the late 1960s. The research is a product of an ethnographic inquiry. Apart from participant observations and interviews, ethnomusicological literature and commercial recordings from the recording history of Turkish music sourced the investigation. The string ensemble in Turkish Music Industry is a product of modernization trials performed by significant actors from diverse backgrounds during the foundation of the musical genre called arabesk music. The works and efforts of significant actors of arabesk music were examined to set a ground for the foundation of the string ensembles. One of the findings of the thesis is the fact that arabesk music and string ensemble as its trademark were cultivated by diverse backgrounded musicians from the musical scene. However, some of them, such as Suat Sayın, Orhan Gencebay, Vedat Yıldırımbora, and Mustafa Sayan came forward as the most influential modernizers who impacted the music industry and followed by others. The very existence of the string ensemble shifted the musical style of the popular makam musics in terms of sonic range, timbre, melodic structures, form, and polyphony; which were elaborated in several sections of the text. Certain issues related with local and global styles, Arab influence, and social organization of arabesk musicians were addressed in the thesis. String ensembles have been dominated with Romani musicians since their foundation. The issues focusing on the social organization of the string ensembles with a special attention on the flexibility and networking of the string musicians in the marketplace promises a sublime data for the reader. In chapter 3, the findings from the field about performer profiles and cultivation processes of the Romani families and individuals as well as institutionalization processes which led to competition among the string ensembles were narrated. Performers of the string ensembles developed their musical tradition throughout history. As they provide service for the music industry, they adapted to changes in stylistic and aesthetic tendencies, economic fluctuations, and technological developments. In order to sustain their status in the marketplace they cultivated a musicianship which enabled them to perform any musical demand of actors who shape the musical scene. Meanwhile, their active participation in the productions transcend their significance towards active individuals and communities who shape the music.
  • Öge
    A phenomenological approach to sufi culture, ritual structure and its subjective experience in Kādirîhâne
    (Graduate School, 2022-06-22) Güner, Burçin Bahadır ; Tanır Özgün, Emine Şirin ; 409152001 ; Music
    Sufi rituals have been an important part of cultural and religious life in the Ottoman period. At the beginning of the 20th century, it is known that there were approximately 400 Sufi lodges (tekke) of various orders (tarikat) in İstanbul. In 1925, all Sufi lodges were closed and their activities were banned by the Turkish Republic. Even though they have disintegrated, some of them have been able to continue their traditions. Today, several tarikat perform their rituals and ceremonies. This study examines the Kadirî dhikr ritual in Istanbul. The Rûmî branch of the Kadirî order was established by pîr İsmail Rûmî in the early 17th century. The Kadirîhâne that he built in İstanbul, Tophane in 1631 was later considered as the center tekke (âsitâne) of the Kadirî order in Ottoman geography. Rûmî Kıyam Usûlü or Kıyam Zikri/Ayini is the name of the weekly public ritual among various other rituals and ceremonies. The purpose of this study is to understand the form and structure of the ritual in conjunction with the surrounding culture, and especially to describe the subjective experience of the participant. The study incorporates fieldwork, ethnography, transcription, translation, musical analysis and phenomenological description. In order to grasp the essence of the ritual, the study follows an outside-in path. First, it categorizes and explains the contents of the ritual in the context of the Sufi culture at the Kadirihane. Then, the author describes the ritual first from the third and then the first person's point of view in dedicated chapters. These methodological steps and their requirements are discussed in the first introductory chapter. Chapter 2, Ritual Content, presents the culture (lifeworld) around the ritual. With a phenomenological stance, it categorizes certain concepts from the ritual and explains them with reference to the culture and related literature. The first category, processual, explains the formal organization of the ritual; while the şeyh/postnişin conducts the ritual, participants establish an ostinato polyphony by providing rhythmical chants (dervişler) and songs/recitations (zakirler). The next category, procedural, focuses on what a regular participant performs and/or perceives in the ritual. In this way, certain concepts and behaviors are examined in and out of the ritual. The description in the next chapter builds on this ritual understanding. Chapter 3, Ritual Structure, is a musicological analysis and an objective description of the ritual. This Sufi ritual is a participatory performance and does not allow an outside observer. This means that the observer naturally becomes a part of the zikr circle. However, every detail of the âyin is described, transcribed and analyzed in depth from the perspective of a third person. The weekly ritual consists of Kuud (sit) and Kıyam (stand) sections. First section, Kuud, starts with the Evrâd-ı Şerif, a composed monophonic and axial group chanting that takes approximately 15 minutes. The text is known to be composed by the pîr Abdülkâdir Geylânî (d. 1165), the founder of the Kadirî order. It starts with some verses from the Quran and the rest consists of various salavats (divine blessings and salutations) upon the Prophet Muhammed. Then, participants start to chant La ilahe illallah (There is no god but Allah). While participants (dervişler) chant this phrase, musicians (zakirler) perform songs and recitations over the ostinato of the chant. Lastly, after the Kelime-i Tevhid, one zakir performs a durak ilahisi that allow participants to rest (durak) before standing up for Kıyam. As all participants stand up, they begin to perform a cumhur ilahi and then continue with another ilahi: kıyam durak. After this point, participants perform 5 divine phrases (esmâ) (Hayyul Kayyum Allah; Hay; Allah Allah Hay; Allah and Hu) in succession with metrical sways, while zakirler sing over them. The âyin is concluded with the Verse of Light (Nur 24/35) from the Quran. In Chapter 4, Ritual Experience, the author shares his subjective experience to show the dynamics of meaning and the sense of ritual. Therefore, the phenomenological description takes the form of an intimate narrative. This narrative description takes into account all multisensory details and their connotations. Also, all texts are interpreted from the inside of the ritual participation and performance. As a conclusion, chapter 5 summarizes all findings of the thesis. The concept of zikir, as being the main motivational concept for ritual, precedes both structure as well as the experience of it. The reciprocity between God and Human is symbolized with the rememberer and the remembered. The encounter with the being is presented as the ultimate goal of the zikir. Also, the processual form of the ritual symbolizes propriety (edep) and beauty (güzel) both of which lead one to the union (vahdet) with God.