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  • Öge
    Organonscape, atmospheric relations and sound ethnobiology of kemence in and around Trabzon
    (Graduate School, 2021-12-17) Aslan, Uğur ; Karahasanoğlu, Songül ; 409162006 ; Music
    Kemençe is a three-string fiddle played especially in the East part of the Black Sea Region in Turkey. It is also called as Karadeniz Kemençe (Black Sea Kemençe) in order to distinguish this instrument from another kinds of Kemençes such as Klasik Kemençe or İstanbul Kemençesi, performed mostly in Turkish Classical Music. Kemençe is also a crucial part of the social life of the Black Sea people. In many cases, people express their cultural identity with this instrument and it represents their place, region, and even environment that they live in. This study aims to reveal the complex relations from the making of the kemençe to the musical performance and from its place in the soundscapes of the Eastern Black Sea region to the problem of the representation of the kemençe in the region. In this direction, I evaluate the kemençe instrument from three different perspectives and reveal the relationships of the kemençe with a different dimension in line with each point of view. These dimensions are space, nature and sound. I collected the data about the kemençe by the fieldwork method. I used participant observation and interview techniques in the study. In this direction, I started taking lessons from İlyas Parlak, one of the well-known kemençe players in the region, since 2018. The fact that Parlak knows the region very well and is aware of the musical differences in the region has enabled me to distinguish more clearly the musical identities in the region. In addition, I obtained the data on the role of kemençe making in creating sound communities and its relationship with nature by conducting interviews with well-known kemençe makers in the region. In order to interpret the kemençe from three different perspectives (space, nature, and sound), I held three different literature reviews and conceptual frameworks for this study. These three different perspectives are included in three different chapters in the thesis. In the first perspective, I discussed the aural spaces of the kemençe by making use of the literature of cultural geography and organology. As a result, I determined the aural spaces of the kemençe in and around Trabzon through different types of kemençes. I propose the concept of organonscape in order to explain the spatial analysis of the kemençe in this study. Through this concept, I show that kemençe takes place in a non-representational aural space in and around Trabzon, because five different types of kemençe(high-pitched, middle sized, low-pitched, four-stringed, and electronic) are performed in every part of the region and they are interacted with each other. In the second perspective, I focus on how the kemençe creates certain feelings among people (bodies) through specific performances. In this context, the term I put in the center is sound. While discussing the sound of the kemençe in the context of performance, I examined the concept of atmosphere in this section in order to answer my research question. In this section, while referring to the kemençe performance, which I consider as atmospheric practices, I have discussed the components related to creating a certain atmospheric situation with the concept of atmospheric relations. In this context, I aimed to present a broad structure that starts with the sound focus and also deals with the relationships between bodies in specific kemençe performances such as plateau festivals or muhabbet gatherings. In the third perspective, I deal with the relationship between the musical instrument and nature while assessing the instrument making process. In this context, in this section, I have discussed how natural resources that are used in kemençe making form the sound and timbre of the kemençe. In this context, while making use of the ecomusicology literature, I also examined the term sound ethnobiology in detail. As a result, I propose the concept of the sound ethnobiology of musical instruments in this section. I took this concept as revealing how the luthiers' relationship with nature affects the instrument during the instrument making process. When it comes to the sound ethnobiology of the kemençe, luthiers can classify tree species in terms of suitability for making kemençe, taking into account the place where the trees are grown. Luthiers also know what kind of timbre can be created through what kind of tree. This knowledge of knowing the natural sources of kemençe constitutes the traditional ecological knowledge of sound production in the region. In connection with the various uses of natural resources, different types of kemençes can be made and each type of kemençe creates its own aural space in the region. Consequently, local people reinterpret the kemençe instrument in a fluid aural space and create a space that is represented through the sound and timbre of the instrument. I considered this space as the organonscape of kemençe in this study. In addition, how the kemençe performance creates a common feeling and belonging on people is revealed with the concept of atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric relationships, practice, and certain atmospheric arrangements are required for these specific situations to occur. Finally, the relationship of the kemençe instrument with nature has been evaluated within the framework of sound ethnobiology from the manufacturing process to finding the appropriate timbre, and in this sense, it has contributed to future ecomusicology and sound ecology studies in terms of instrument-based studies.
  • Öge
    Twenty-first century flamenco: Experiencing tradition and transmission
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Foggo, Robin George ; Tanır Özgün, Emine Şirin ; 708468 ; Müzik
    While flamenco is a strong cultural symbol of identity in Andalusia, it is also a genre that has many dedicated participants outside its original geographical area of genesis. This makes flamenco an ideal case study to examine the various contemporary paths that lead an outsider to an understanding of a musical practice. This thesis asks what aspects of the flamenco tradition are transmitted to outsiders. It also examines how it is transmitted nowadays and what this means to the tradition. The research methods employed were a combination of autoethnography, participant observation, virtual ethnography, and source analysis. I initially gathered material in the form of recorded guitar lessons, lesson notes as a learner, as well as ethnographic notes on all facets of my fieldwork, taking particular interest in aspects that contributed to my musical growth within the style. As I employed various media and contemporary methods of acquisition, it became clearer that how a tradition is transmitted is part of the tradition itself. This realization led me to treat a wider range of materials as source texts for analysis. These included guitar methods, interviews, books and articles, audio recordings, online communication, films, concert notes, letras, films and documentaries, lesson notes from my teachers, photos, and interactions between members of my target community. The process left me with a huge amount of source material, and as I categorised it certain patterns emerged. While organizing these patterns into themes, somewhat along the lines of grounded theory, the shape of this thesis emerged. To answer the main questions of this thesis I survey the main historical narratives of flamenco and associated identities, and demonstrate how the identities are manifest within the tradition. By examining musical forms, the flamenco aesthetic and certain socio-cultural performance contexts, I reveal the main markers of the flamenco style. I give examples of the lack of consensus on several aspects of the style within the community and argue that they reflect the interests of the various stakeholders. I also show that knowledge of the style is communal, and no one source has a monopoly on information. I argue that the antagonism between nuevo and puro supporters within the flamenco community is influenced by more general differences of human psychology and reflects the wider ongoing conflict between radical/conservative thought. I also highlight several obstacles that must be negotiated by a learner from outside the tradition. These challenges include conflicting information, a lack of standardization, and communication issues regarding language and jargon. I include a discussion centred on the interaction I had with my various teachers. Teaching methods and the underlying theories are embodied in the teaching practices I describe and complete the portrait of a learner journey. Examples are given that demonstrate the benefits and pitfalls encountered by a contemporary learner. Additionally, I show that not all aspects of the style are widely or explicitly taught. Some teachers are unaware of what they know, some cannot communicate it, and some simply do not know. The subject of explicit knowledge is also broached when I analyse different forms of notation and reveal what aspects of the style can be notated, what can't, what is purposely included, and what is omitted. I contend that this illustrates the importance different authors place on these aspects, and what knowledge they believe is tacit. While exploring these topics, we understand more fully the actors involved in imparting the tradition and the experiences of those to whom it is transmitted. I show that the various ways a style can be acquired outside the traditional areas of transmission leads to a more diverse pool of learners, who in turn become transmitters in their own right. I contend that this situation will present an increasing challenge to concepts linking identity and ownership of the music as the participant demographic continues to shift. I reveal that flamenco is a malleable tradition, and often being reinterpreted. I show that access to information technologies and international travel has changed the learning environment, made the acquisition of the style less challenging, and is creating new communities that still retain the key themes that make flamenco an identifiable musical culture.
  • Öge
    Efficiency in rehearsal: A study on choral conducting methodology
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2020) Erdem, Burak Onur ; Özgen Öztürk, Yelda ; 657631 ; Müzik Ana Bilim Dalı
    The course of a rehearsal is part of the performance of a conductor. Considering that choral conductors have to plan a lot in advance to prepare a season and make sure that this plan functions well, it becomes evident that the efficiency level of a rehearsal is extremely important for an ensemble. Many factors have an impact on the efficiency of the rehearsal. The rehearsal methodology of the conductor, the planning of the schedule and its execution, the design of the rehearsal period itself, the conducting technique and the utilisation of the warm-up are prominent topics that should be discussed. On top of that, human factors like communication, motivation and discipline should be taken into consideration. All the literature considered, these elements all affect the rehearsal efficiency and function in combination. Logistics such as location, timing, transportation and subsistance are not to be neglected and they can be powerful in boosting performance, as well as decreasing rehearsal productivity when they are not taken care of. The allocation of the resources like the score library or the archive have strong effects on the outcomes of a rehearsal. Last but not least, the organisation within the choir, the self-governance structures, and the very existence of a board, extended representation tools, working groups, and general assembly are crucial for a healthy functioning of a choir, thus its efficiency in the rehearsals. Looking at the case study of the Wiener Singverein, a world-class choir with a rooted history and tradition, one can see how a season full of professional engagements can be managed with a membership of amateur singers. The case study primarily teaches the reader that the rehearsal is not a result of an improvised performance, but each and every aspect of it is carefully planned and crafted by the conductor and the driving forces of the choir. As a conclusion, this dissertation claims that five fundamental points can summarise the road to a more efficient rehearsal. These are the following points: Planning for different scenarios, preparing musically in great detail, communicating towards a positive environment, building a strong and sustainable team, and supporting the choir outside the rehearsal room.
  • Öge
    Top plate vibration analysis of the kanun instrument
    (Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2020) Ömeroğlu, Cem ; Karadoğan, Can ; 409032001 ; Müzik
    Bu çalışma kanun enstrümanının göğüs tahtasının titreşim analizine yoğunlaşmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı göğüs tahtasının doğal titreşim frekanslarını tam anlamıyla çalışan ve geçerliliği yine bu çalışmanın içinde ispatlanmış bir üç boyutlu fiziksel model yardımıyla tanımlamak ve tasarım sürecinde öngörebilmektir. Böylelikle ladin ve çınar ağaçları ile birlikte metal ve kompozit malzemeler için de enstrümanın göğüs tahtasının frekans spektrumu model sonuçları ile birlikte analiz edilip değerlendirilecektir. Yöntem, başlangıç olarak çekiç testi olarak adlandırılan darbe deneyi aracılığı ile doğal titreşim frekanslarını ölçmeye dayalı olan deneysel çalışmayı kullanmıştır. Göğüs tahtaları çekiç ile darbelenmiş ve darbe tepkileri bir ivmeölçer aracılığı ile bilgisayar yazılımına kaydedilmiştir. Plakalar üstünde ayrık ve birden fazla sayıda nokta araştırılmış ve bu bilgiler sonraki aşama olan üç boyutlu fiziksel modellemeyi doğrulama aşamasında kullanılmak üzere ayrılmış ve saklanmıştır. Böylece deneysel çalışma, fiziksel modellemenin doğru ve tutarlı bir şekilde çalıştığını sağlamak ve gerçek ortam şartlarına mümkün olduğunca yakınlık sağladığını göstermek amacı ile bir referans noktası olarak kullanılmıştır. Farklı göğüs tahtaları fiziksel olarak modellenerek malzeme karakteristik bilgileri tanımlanmış, sonuçlar bilgisayar yazılımı ile üç boyutlu fiziksel modelin serbest titreşim modlarına göre ilgili yazılımla hesaplanmıştır. Model hesaplamaları ile deney sonuçları birbirleri ile kesiştikten ve serbest titreşim modlarına göre sağlama yapıldıktan sonra, fiziksel modellemenin sonraki çalışmalarda güvenli bir şekilde kullanılabilirliği onaylanmıştır. Sonrasında ise her iki farklı ağaç için sabitlenmiş titreşim modları çalışılmış ve sonuçlar aşağıdaki şekilde değerlendirilmiştir; İki ağacın sabitlenmiş titreşim modları karşılaştırıldığında; çınar ağacının (22) ladine (18) göre enstrümanın frekans aralığında daha fazla doğuşkan içeriğine sahip olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Bu sonuç çınar ağacının göğüs tahtasının gürlük ve ses yayılımı anlamında ladine göre daha fazla potansiyele sahip olduğunu açıklayabilir. Geometriyi oluşturan plaka boyutlarında yapılacak cm bazında bir değişiklik dahi doğal titreşim frekans sonuçlarını etkilemektedir. Bundan dolayı; sesin doğuşkan içeriği ve yayılım şiddetinin genliklere bağlı olarak ses alanı içerisinde değişmesi beklenebilir. Boyutlar dalga boylarını belirlemektedir. Bundan dolayı, ses hızı sabitken boyutlar değiştiğinde doğal titreşim frekansında değişiklik beklenebilir. Üretim aşamasında çeşitli göğüs tahtalarını incelerken tüm plakalar hemen hemen aynı geometriye ve ölçülere sahip olsalar dahi ağırlıkları dolayısıyla da yoğunluklarındaki değişkenlik gözlemlenmiştir. Kısaca; ağaçların yoğunluğu ve bağıl nem oranı doğal titreşim frekansını kuvvetli bir şekilde etkilemektedir. Katılarda ses hızı Young Modülü ve yoğunluğa bağlıdır. Bu şekilde sadece yoğunluk parametresi düşerse, doğal titreşim frekanslarının tam aksine arttığı gözlemlenmiştir. Ladin ve çınar ağaçlarının göğüs tahtaları frekans spektrumu içinde değişik bölgelerde rezonansa girmektedir. Bu durumda yine geometrilerdeki benzerliğe vurgu yapılabilir. Yoğunluğa ek olarak Young Modülü, Sertlik Modülü ve Poisson's oranları bu doğal titreşim frekanslarını hep birlikte belirlerler. Ek olarak, göğüs tahtası için ağaçlara alternatif olabilecek farklı malzemelerin incelenmesi de fiziksel modelleme yoluyla çalışılmıştır. Metal olarak Al 3003-H18, kompozit malzeme olarak da GFRP ve CFRP Toray malzemeleri bu aşamada sunulmuştur. Tüm malzemeler; plaka kalınlığı, enstrüman frekans sahasına düşen doğal frekans sayısı açısından karşılaştırılmış ve ek olarak malzeme özellikleri ile belirtilmiştir. Biçim ve geometri çalışmaları ise göğüs tahtası üzerinde tek delik ve üç delik olmak üzere alternatif olacak şekilde çalışılmış ve sunulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, göğüs tahtasında tek delikli GFRP Toray malzemesi ile doğal frekanslar için enstrüman frekans sahasında maksimum sayıda (25) harmonik elde edilmiştir. Modelde kullanılan sonlu elemanlar yöntemine ilişkin parametrelerden; formüller, algoritmalar ve sonraki aşamalarda yapılabilecek değişikliklerin, sayısal ses işleme ve sentezleme konusunda fiziksel modelleme araçları olarak da kullanılması beklenebilir.