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ÖgeSynthesis of folate receptor 1 targeted dye-conjugated peptides for use in positron emission tomography imaging systems(Graduate School, 2022-01-26)Nowadays, it is tried to find solutions for human beings to have a long and high-quality life, increase the number of studies in the field of health, and detect diseases that become difficult to treat with their progress. Cancer is one of the first causes of death statistics in official records in the world and Turkey. It is known that the diagnosis of cancer is difficult and takes time, and the number of cases continues to increase rapidly day by day. Because of the metabolism change in cancer cells, the cells continue to grow and divide instead of dying. Cancer factors; inherited mutations can be internal, such as hormones, or acquired environmental, such as carcinogens, radiation, infectious organisms, and lifestyle. By imaging the changes caused by cancer in cells, information about the stage of cancer can be obtained. Cancer researchers want to detect cells where cancers develop, identify biomarkers of cancers early, and create treatment plans for cancer. Proteins produced by tumor cells can be used as biomarkers to evaluate disease processes. Molecular imaging (MI) aims to combine patient and disease-specific molecular information and is an interdisciplinary area covering a wide range of sciences when is used in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse disease genres. For this purpose, targeted cell-specific chemical biomolecules are delivered to the organism by labeled radioactive isotopes. The imaging method to be utilized varies specifically according to the disease state. Positron emission tomography (PET), which has become more advanced with the integration of scanners such as computerized tomography (CT) used in the imaging of cancer, is one of the several imaging methods widely used in the diagnosis of cancer today. Since radioisotope imaging agents are required for imaging in PET devices, studies for their development are increasing day by day. Peptides are used as ligands/agents in imaging cancer imaging, thanks to their properties such as high selectivity and high affinity, ease of synthesis and chemical stability, quick removal from blood, and low immunogenicity/safety for cell surface proteins. Due to the metabolic rate of cancer cells, more folic acid is produced in these cells than in normal healthy body cells, and this uncontrolled increase has led to its use in cancer imaging studies. Peptide-based imaging agents are used for molecular imaging by binding to target cancer receptors such as Folate Receptor 1 (FOLR1) of tumor cells. Molecules that can bind to the FOLR1 receptor with high sensitivity and affinity were synthesized by the Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) method. The peptides KWGFR, KLWWN, KFLSW, KWIAG, KWSYW, KGWRN, and KSYFA were selected from the peptide library and successfully synthesized. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to purify the peptides and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized for peptide characterization. Finally, the imaging agent will be obtained by conjugating the peptide-based signaling agent labeled with the 68Ga isotope.
ÖgeDevelopment of interlayer based thin-film nanofibrous composite membranes adjusted by functionalized carbon nanotubes for effectual water purification(Graduate School, 2022-01-20)Drinkable water supply is one of the fundamental human prerequisites all over the world. Due to the population expansion, the changes in the global climate, and water degradation, The requirement for freshwater increases with time around the world. Based on the reported calculations, except for 2.5% of existence global water, which is classified in the potable water range for humans, 70% of the remaining freshwater (FW) is frozen. Due to recent reports, more than 700 million people worldwide have not been accessed clean water. Ascribed to the severe FW demands, which have been observed in some developing countries and sub-Saharan African countries, the water treatment technologies must be enforced in these overwhelmed countries. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are other novel solutions to water treatment technology problems. Ascribed to nanomaterials properties, including high aspect ratio, reactivity, adjustable pore volume, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions, they have been utilized in numerous types of applications. Multiple types of batteries, optics, fuel cells, sensors, electrics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics are some industries that have used nanomaterials to improve their products. Moreover, nanotechnology has been performed in economically unconventional water sources, resolving contaminant-free water for humans, and suggesting many solutions to alleviate needs with regard to reducing scarcity or removing contamination. For example, there are filters that remove pesticides from drinking water using nanochemistry. At the same time, due to the multidisciplinary feature of membrane technology and essential advantages of membrane science technology, such as being clean energy, the ability of energy-saving, high-quality products, and system versatility, it has been applied in multiple applications. The power of membrane technology to replace other purification systems, including distillation and ion exchange systems, has been distinguished as other membrane technology's benefits. Furthermore, because of the forward osmosis (FO) and nanofiltration (NF), membranes' excellent features such as energy conversion, low-cost procedure, and high water recovery ability have received much more attention in wastewater treatment, water purification, and brackish water desalination over the last decade. The electrospinning device generally consists of a high voltage power supply, a supply unit, and a grounded collector. The feed solution is sent to the feed end by a pump. An electric field is created by a high-voltage power supply connected to the supply terminal. As the applied voltage increases, the electrical forces overcome the viscoelastic forces of the solution at the feed end. After a critical voltage, a jet formation is observed at the supply end. The bubbler solution diffuses in the electrical field and accumulates randomly on the collecting plate in microscopic diameter fibers. The solvent in the solution evaporates before or after the fibers are collected in the container. Among the factors affecting the nanofiber production by electrospinning method are the type of polymer to be obtained, conductivity and dielectric properties, the solvent used, the viscosity of the feed solution, the distance between the feed unit and the collector, the feed rate (flow rate), the voltage used. More than 100 polymers can be electrospinning, and the most preferred among these polymers in nanofiber membrane construction are; polyacrylonitrile (PAN), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polystyrene (PS), Nylon-6, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and polycarbonate. PVA is a water-soluble, non-toxic, and biocompatible polyhydroxy polymer with high chemical resistance and thermal stability among these polymers. It is known that PVA easily interacts with other organic and inorganic materials. However, PVA's applications are limited due to its hydrophilic nature. Therefore, it must be modified to minimize dissolution, mainly used in aqueous applications such as filtration and adsorption. Chemical crosslinking of PVA nanofibers with dialdehydes, dicarboxylic acids, or dianhydride is advantageous in becoming insoluble in all solvents and increasing their thermal and chemical properties. Polymeric thin-film composites are essential types of compounds applied in various practical applications, including surface coatings and modifications, adsorption and immobilization, membrane technologies, and low surface energy interfaces. Also, the inherent internal concentration polarization (ICP), which causes osmotic driving force's decline, is another major problem of conventional TFC membranes which has been challenged for several years. Moreover, biological fouling is another disadvantage that limits the conventional TFC membranes' performance in multiple usages. Due to the biological fouling of TFC type membranes, microorganisms and micropollutants, which require reproduction, easily stick to the membrane's surface and cause a significant reduction of FO membranes' stability and durability. In order to break the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of TFC membranes and obtain membranes with balanced permeability and rejection performance and excellent durability, triple-layered thin film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes fabricated by introducing an interlayer on the porous electrospun membranes before interfacial polymerization (IP) procedure. Introducing an interlayer on the electrospun substrate overcomes the conventional TFC membranes' limitations and causes synthesizing controlled polyamide (PA) layer and improving the IP process. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), cellulose nanocrystal, and cadmium hydroxide nano-strands are some of the nanomaterials that have been introduced as an interlayer in TFC types of membranes. The adopted interlayers develop the barrier selective layer's structure and control the IP procedure. Due to the CNT's ideal characteristics, such as large specific surface area (SSA) and excellent mechanical stability, CNTs are distinguished as superior nanomaterials that have been performed as interlayers in TFC membranes. Triple-layered TFC membranes with CNT interlayer enhance the PA layer formation with defect-free and ultrathin structure and promote the membrane's permeation ability, even rejecting monovalent and divalent ions. The membranes were utilized in this research are thin-film nanofibrous composite membranes with hydrolyzed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an interlayer. First of all, MWCNTs had been acid-treated in the presence of sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric (HNO3) acids. Secondly, the different amounts of hydrolyzed MWCNTs were dispersed in the distilled water using ultrasonication and then introduced as an interlayer onto the porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun membranes by vacuum filtration procedure. Finally, TFC membranes were prepared to utilize the IP procedure. In this study, MPD and TMC solutions had been performed as aqueous and organic phases to begin the IP proceeding. The prepared membranes had been tested in dead-end filtration systems to investigate the membranes' performance in salt rejections. Also, these interlayer-based TFC membranes had been applied in the dye removal from industrial wastewaters and compared to the conventional TFC type of membranes in their filtration performance.
ÖgeFormation and structural properties of water induced structures at graphene/mica and graphene/CrxO/glass interfaces(Graduate School, 2021-10-08)Water behavior at interfaces has great importance. Especially molecularly thin layer water or nanoconfined water. Nanoconfined water properties are different from bulk ones. Studying nanoconfined water properties have fundamental importance in biology, material science, nanofluidics, tribology, and corrosion. Nanoconfiment materials are carbon nanotubes and layered two-dimensional materials or Van der Waals crystals. In this thesis, we studied water interaction behavior with graphene/water/CrxOy/glass and graphene/mica systems. For this purpose, we needed the following devices: Optic microscope with the isolated system, PVD system, graphene heater, and materials like CVD-grown graphene, muscovite mica, soda-lime glass, and chromium granulates. Firstly, we started with graphene/water/CrxOy/glass system. We did thermal evaporation of chromium using PVD system that was assembled in our laboratory. As a substrate, we used soda lime microscope slide glass(INTROLAB). Chromium thin-film on glass samples was produced. The thickness of thin-film chromium was varied. We transferred CVD-grown graphene onto chromium thin-film glass with the wet transfer method, then annealed it in a tube furnace around 450°C degrees under atmospheric ambient conditions for approximately 40 minutes. As soon as annealing finished we quickly transferred produced sample into a container full of silica gels to preserve from environmental humidity. We reduced humidity within enclosed boxes in which an Optical light microscope stayed for study samples under controlled humidification. We took optic data before, during, and after the humidification process. Secondly, our second system for research was graphene/water/mica. Again as in the graphene/water/CrxOy/glass system, we used CVD-grown graphene and V2grade muscovite mica(Ted Pella). Using scotch tape we cleavage mica several times then CVD-grown graphene was transferred onto it using the wet transfer method. We preserve graphene/mica samples in a container full of silica gels. We studied them with two methods: First under the optic microscope in the isolated box and second using the graphene heater. We reduced humidity to 9% in the isolated box using silica. In the case of the graphene heater, we managed to heat up nearly 200°C. We observed fractal in graphene/CrxOy/glass system but due to non-homogeneous deposition of chromium fractal formation was inconsistent. In case of graphene/mica system observation of de/rewetting process was not possible even though we reduce humidity. The graphene heater was functional, the reason that we couldn't use it was a poorer resolution of the graphene/mica system. Otherwise, observation de/rewetting graphene/water/mica with the optic microscope is challenging.
ÖgeDesign and simulation of a microfluidic biochip for optic detection with derivatized microbeads and the biochemistry of learning(Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020)Microfluidic systems are an important technology suitable for a wide range of applications due to their rapid response capabilities, low cost and, small amounts of sample need. Microfluidics tries to overcome difficulties in conventional assays in medical diagnosis. The combination of biosensors and microfluidic chips increases the analytical capability to extend the scope of possible applications. In this thesis, two types of microfluidic modeling were designed for biomedical applications. The first design is a bead derivatized sensor in a microfluidic chip to detect biomarkers. The second model is designed to observe the effect of α-syn protein which constitutes the communication of two nerve cells through channels in the microfluidic system and the long term potentiation. In Project 1, Integrated affinity sensors within microfluidic platforms show great interest in life environmental and science analytical science applications. They are generally placed in the base of a fluidic flow channel on which an analyte solution is passed. The analyte detection on the sensor depends on the event of a recognition-binding, most generally antigen-antibody, for which the recognition molecules are attached to the surface of the sensor for the analyte. The analyte -recognition molecule complex is detected on the sensor. The integration of bead-based immunoaffinity assays in microfluidic chips has recently become an area of interest for many researchers. Integrated affinity sensors inside of the microfluidic structures have many advantages which are low-cost, rapid, highly specific detection and sensitivity. In this study, the microfluidic system has been designed with different substrate patterns in the continuous flow of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and microbeads were examined. Functionalized microbeads have been used as biomolecules to enhance the affinity of biomarkers and for high sensitivity. Microchannel was patterned with square pyramid well array, conic well array, triangle pyramid array, and the each microbeads made of polystyrene were placed into the each microwell; PS beads were simulated with different flow rates. Initially, PBS was utilized to simulate blood serum, and PS nanoparticles, functionalized and fluorescently labeled nanoparticles that allow detection of biomarkers, were simulated for examination by fluorescence microscopy. As a result of three different geometric well chip patterns and three different bead size simulations, it was determined that the shape of the well should be conical and the bead size should be 150 µm. The lowest cross-section flow rate of the fluid sent from the inlet of the channel with a flow rate of 300 µl was determined in conical design. This indicates that there will be more interaction with the surface compared to other patterned arrays. In Project 2, The purpose of this project is to create a biosynthetic neuron-on-a-chip to reproduce the activity of neuronal function. Neurons are the main important units of the nervous system and brain. The target of neurons is to receive sensory input from the outside world and send motor commands to the muscles. They are also responsible for converting and transmitting electrical signals in every step that takes place in this cycle. Neurons communicate with electrochemical signals. Therefore, electrical and chemical events must occur together for the communication of two neuron cells. It transmits a neuron signal through the axons to the dendrites of other neurons to which it connects via the axons called synapses. Long Term Potentialization is a process in which synaptic connections between neurons are strengthened by frequent activation. LTP is thought to change the brain in response to experience, thereby providing a mechanism underlying learning and memory. In the process of learning, nerve cells, the basic computing units of any nervous system, are thought to exhibit digital and analog properties. Alpha-synuclein(α-syn) proteins are of high importance to sustaining LTP in the brain. In this thesis, the most suitable platform for communication between two yeast cells and the passage of α-syn proteins through channels is optimized and designed. It refers to nerve cells in the computer environment by yeast cells in the simulation program. A channel that enables the communication of two yeast cells was designed and these yeast cells were placed in the traps located at the entrances of the channels. The activating agent was sent to produce α-syn of yeast cells in the A channel. Αlpha-synuclein protein, which is synthesized from yeast cells in the A channel, has passed through the channel and attached to the NDMA receptor in the other yeast cell in the B channel. Then, LTP was provided by activating the α-syn protein bound to the NDMA receptor in a balanced manner with Ca^+ions. Irregularity in the ratio of protein Ca^+ and α-syn prevents the formation of long term potentiation and causes Parkinson's disease. Optimization studies were carried out in microfluidic chip design. The number of channels along with the microfluidic chip, the width of chamber A and B, the width of the communication channel, the distance between communication channels, the length of yeast cells chamber, the length of yeast cells communication channel, the inlet-outlet radius of chamber A and B were determined. As a result of these determinations, it was observed how each parameter affects diffusion. The greater diffusion indicates that the amount of α-syn protein passes more from chamber A to chamber B. It was also observed that some parameters started diffusion earlier. Therefore, it enabled more yeast cells to interact. Computer modeling and simulation were applied as a very useful tool for improvements in the design of microfluidic chip geometry, as well as for the optimization of the technological and functional parameters. In this thesis, COMSOL Multiphysics, which is the most used in microfluidic systems, is used in two projects for microfluidic chip design and simulations within the designed chip.