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ÖgeFormation and structural properties of water induced structures at graphene/mica and graphene/CrxO/glass interfaces(Graduate School, 2021-10-08)Water behavior at interfaces has great importance. Especially molecularly thin layer water or nanoconfined water. Nanoconfined water properties are different from bulk ones. Studying nanoconfined water properties have fundamental importance in biology, material science, nanofluidics, tribology, and corrosion. Nanoconfiment materials are carbon nanotubes and layered two-dimensional materials or Van der Waals crystals. In this thesis, we studied water interaction behavior with graphene/water/CrxOy/glass and graphene/mica systems. For this purpose, we needed the following devices: Optic microscope with the isolated system, PVD system, graphene heater, and materials like CVD-grown graphene, muscovite mica, soda-lime glass, and chromium granulates. Firstly, we started with graphene/water/CrxOy/glass system. We did thermal evaporation of chromium using PVD system that was assembled in our laboratory. As a substrate, we used soda lime microscope slide glass(INTROLAB). Chromium thin-film on glass samples was produced. The thickness of thin-film chromium was varied. We transferred CVD-grown graphene onto chromium thin-film glass with the wet transfer method, then annealed it in a tube furnace around 450°C degrees under atmospheric ambient conditions for approximately 40 minutes. As soon as annealing finished we quickly transferred produced sample into a container full of silica gels to preserve from environmental humidity. We reduced humidity within enclosed boxes in which an Optical light microscope stayed for study samples under controlled humidification. We took optic data before, during, and after the humidification process. Secondly, our second system for research was graphene/water/mica. Again as in the graphene/water/CrxOy/glass system, we used CVD-grown graphene and V2grade muscovite mica(Ted Pella). Using scotch tape we cleavage mica several times then CVD-grown graphene was transferred onto it using the wet transfer method. We preserve graphene/mica samples in a container full of silica gels. We studied them with two methods: First under the optic microscope in the isolated box and second using the graphene heater. We reduced humidity to 9% in the isolated box using silica. In the case of the graphene heater, we managed to heat up nearly 200°C. We observed fractal in graphene/CrxOy/glass system but due to non-homogeneous deposition of chromium fractal formation was inconsistent. In case of graphene/mica system observation of de/rewetting process was not possible even though we reduce humidity. The graphene heater was functional, the reason that we couldn't use it was a poorer resolution of the graphene/mica system. Otherwise, observation de/rewetting graphene/water/mica with the optic microscope is challenging.
ÖgeDesign and simulation of a microfluidic biochip for optic detection with derivatized microbeads and the biochemistry of learning(Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020)Microfluidic systems are an important technology suitable for a wide range of applications due to their rapid response capabilities, low cost and, small amounts of sample need. Microfluidics tries to overcome difficulties in conventional assays in medical diagnosis. The combination of biosensors and microfluidic chips increases the analytical capability to extend the scope of possible applications. In this thesis, two types of microfluidic modeling were designed for biomedical applications. The first design is a bead derivatized sensor in a microfluidic chip to detect biomarkers. The second model is designed to observe the effect of α-syn protein which constitutes the communication of two nerve cells through channels in the microfluidic system and the long term potentiation. In Project 1, Integrated affinity sensors within microfluidic platforms show great interest in life environmental and science analytical science applications. They are generally placed in the base of a fluidic flow channel on which an analyte solution is passed. The analyte detection on the sensor depends on the event of a recognition-binding, most generally antigen-antibody, for which the recognition molecules are attached to the surface of the sensor for the analyte. The analyte -recognition molecule complex is detected on the sensor. The integration of bead-based immunoaffinity assays in microfluidic chips has recently become an area of interest for many researchers. Integrated affinity sensors inside of the microfluidic structures have many advantages which are low-cost, rapid, highly specific detection and sensitivity. In this study, the microfluidic system has been designed with different substrate patterns in the continuous flow of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and microbeads were examined. Functionalized microbeads have been used as biomolecules to enhance the affinity of biomarkers and for high sensitivity. Microchannel was patterned with square pyramid well array, conic well array, triangle pyramid array, and the each microbeads made of polystyrene were placed into the each microwell; PS beads were simulated with different flow rates. Initially, PBS was utilized to simulate blood serum, and PS nanoparticles, functionalized and fluorescently labeled nanoparticles that allow detection of biomarkers, were simulated for examination by fluorescence microscopy. As a result of three different geometric well chip patterns and three different bead size simulations, it was determined that the shape of the well should be conical and the bead size should be 150 µm. The lowest cross-section flow rate of the fluid sent from the inlet of the channel with a flow rate of 300 µl was determined in conical design. This indicates that there will be more interaction with the surface compared to other patterned arrays. In Project 2, The purpose of this project is to create a biosynthetic neuron-on-a-chip to reproduce the activity of neuronal function. Neurons are the main important units of the nervous system and brain. The target of neurons is to receive sensory input from the outside world and send motor commands to the muscles. They are also responsible for converting and transmitting electrical signals in every step that takes place in this cycle. Neurons communicate with electrochemical signals. Therefore, electrical and chemical events must occur together for the communication of two neuron cells. It transmits a neuron signal through the axons to the dendrites of other neurons to which it connects via the axons called synapses. Long Term Potentialization is a process in which synaptic connections between neurons are strengthened by frequent activation. LTP is thought to change the brain in response to experience, thereby providing a mechanism underlying learning and memory. In the process of learning, nerve cells, the basic computing units of any nervous system, are thought to exhibit digital and analog properties. Alpha-synuclein(α-syn) proteins are of high importance to sustaining LTP in the brain. In this thesis, the most suitable platform for communication between two yeast cells and the passage of α-syn proteins through channels is optimized and designed. It refers to nerve cells in the computer environment by yeast cells in the simulation program. A channel that enables the communication of two yeast cells was designed and these yeast cells were placed in the traps located at the entrances of the channels. The activating agent was sent to produce α-syn of yeast cells in the A channel. Αlpha-synuclein protein, which is synthesized from yeast cells in the A channel, has passed through the channel and attached to the NDMA receptor in the other yeast cell in the B channel. Then, LTP was provided by activating the α-syn protein bound to the NDMA receptor in a balanced manner with Ca^+ions. Irregularity in the ratio of protein Ca^+ and α-syn prevents the formation of long term potentiation and causes Parkinson's disease. Optimization studies were carried out in microfluidic chip design. The number of channels along with the microfluidic chip, the width of chamber A and B, the width of the communication channel, the distance between communication channels, the length of yeast cells chamber, the length of yeast cells communication channel, the inlet-outlet radius of chamber A and B were determined. As a result of these determinations, it was observed how each parameter affects diffusion. The greater diffusion indicates that the amount of α-syn protein passes more from chamber A to chamber B. It was also observed that some parameters started diffusion earlier. Therefore, it enabled more yeast cells to interact. Computer modeling and simulation were applied as a very useful tool for improvements in the design of microfluidic chip geometry, as well as for the optimization of the technological and functional parameters. In this thesis, COMSOL Multiphysics, which is the most used in microfluidic systems, is used in two projects for microfluidic chip design and simulations within the designed chip.