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ÖgeBIM adoption and implementation in metro projects(Graduate School, 2022-01-19)The adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is rather a newly explored arena, and this is a challenge of its own for the AECO industry. BIM implementation is still a challenge for the Turkish construction industry. BIM has been implemented for seven years in different metro lines with different stakeholders. However, such knowledge has not yet been analyzed in detail, even though these are Turkey's first BIM mandated projects. The thesis aims to determine the state of the art in BIM adoption and implementation processes in metro projects in Turkey and describe characteristic features, challenges, barriers, benefits and lessons-learned of BIM implementation in six real life metro projects in İstanbul. To achieve this aim, two detailed surveys and interviews are conducted. The first survey is conducted with 279 professionals to measure the BIM awareness of all technical staff in the metro projects. The second survey is conducted with 164 professionals to understand the level of the BIM application as perceived by the project participants, who are actively using BIM in their daily work. In addition, 37 in-depth interviews with experts are conducted to find the barriers encountered and describe the level of adoption in metro projects. This thesis analyzes the challenges as well as the barriers related to BIM implementation in addition to the gaps in the adoption of BIM in six real-life metro projects. The key three barriers detected i.e. 1) cultural and induvial barriers to BIM adoption in metro projects: "resistance to change (cultural/staff)", "lack of awareness" and "the need for a cultural change"; 2) economical, technological and leadership barriers to BIM adoption in metro projects: "lack of in-house expertise/skilled personnel shortage", "lack of training/education programs in universities" and "companies' lack of a strategy for the transition to BIM"; and 3) political and legal barriers to BIM adoption in metro projects: "lack of project delivery systems and organizational structures adapted to BIM", "lack of national standard, procedures and guidelines" and "lack of guidance for BIM implementation and utilization". This thesis describes the state of the art in BIM adoption and implementation in metro projects in Turkey. Further studies are needed to establish and enhance large-scale BIM adoption in the Turkish construction industry.