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ÖgeA stable, energy and time efficient biped locomotion(Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Yılmaz, Sabri ; Gökaşan, Metin ; 725780 ; Kontrol ve Otomasyon MühendisliğiThis thesis presents two different walking strategies for biped robots while ensuring energy efficiency. The first strategy is a closedloop walking controller based on the most used 3Dimensional (3D) Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM) which is used to calculate the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) approximately. The closedloop Proportional Integral (PI) controller's coefficients are searched by the Genetic Algorithm (GA), which is developed to overcome the 3D LIPM's dynamical insufficiency. Because of its ease of modeling, the key concept is to continue to use the 3D LIPM with a closedloop controller. For this purpose, the biped is modeled using the 3D LIPM, which is one of the most wellknown modeling approaches for humanoid robots due to its ease of use and quick computations during trajectory planning. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied to the 3D LIPM once the simple model is obtained to search the reference trajectories for the biped while meeting the ZMP criteria. The second strategy is to express the ZMP in a detailed model instead of an approximate model. For this purpose, the biped is modeled with the conventional robot modeling methods and the detailed expression of the ZMP is obtained. Then the problem is redefined as a Nonlinear MPC problem. The highly complicated biped model is implemented in Matlab with the use of CasADi Library which is a symbolic library and used on large symbolic solutions. The optimal control problem is solved with the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT), which is an optimization solver for large equations. With the solution of the optimal control problem, reference trajectories are found for the biped while satisfying the ZMP criteria. Both strategies suggested in this thesis are studied and implemented on a biped robot which means the robot has no upper body elements. The main idea is that if the dynamic flaws are suppressed without any upper body elements, this study will open a way to work on more modular robots. After obtaining two different walking strategies, the energyefficient trajectory for the swing leg is searched to have longer working durations on the field. The Big Bang Big Crunch with Local Search (BBBCLS) global optimization algorithm is used for energy efficiency. With the newly defined trajectory there became nearly 10% energy consumption reduction compared to the sinusoidal trajectory. To implement the algorithms to the real biped, a new communication library is written to meet the desired communication speed. But with the increased speed in communication, there became random packet losses on the feedback from the motors. These packet losses are examined and it is observed that these random packet losses may make the system unstable, so to suppress the effects of packet losses the problem is redefined as a time delay problem. With the redefinition of the problem, the wellknown Smith Predictor method is used to overcome the packet losses and from the results, it can be seen that with this redefinition the instability risk because of the packet losses has disappeared. In a short summary, a twolegged robot has been modeled using conventional methods in the literature. First, the dynamic defects of the simple model are eliminated with a conventional controller. Secondly, a more detailed dynamic model is obtained. Walking planning is done with both methods and comparisons are made with the method commonly used in the literature. The success of the proposed methods has been demonstrated in both simulations and experimental results. With the two methods proposed in this thesis, the oscillation problem encountered by one of the most widely used walking models in the literature has been resolved. After obtaining stable walking, energy optimization is studied so that the robot could work longer in the outdoor environment and trajectory improvement is made to reduce energy consumption during the robot's movement. Finally, a faster communication library is written to apply the designed algorithms to the real system and to solve the problems caused by communication speeds, the problem is redefined with a different approach and the traditional method, Smith Predictor, is used. Packet losses that are random thanks to the communication interfaces prepared for the mechanism; become predictable and the effects of packet losses are eliminated with Smith Predictor. Finally, all these control methods are applied to the system and used in experimental studies.