Sustainable Development Goal "Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being" ile LEE- Mimari Tasarım Lisansüstü Programı'a göz atma
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ÖgeThe effects of environmental factors on social interaction in outdoor spaces: The multiple case of children's villages(Graduate School, 2022-02-01) Kara, Ecem ; Özkan Yıldız, Dilek ; 502142011 ; Architectural DesignFamily with its changing structure in today's world is still the unique natural environment of children's development. The family is the main institution that the first socialization occurs in a person's lifetime. As effecting the subsequent steps of socialization and the whole social development, the first stage of the socializing process takes an important role in a person's lifetime. Therefore, the absence of the family in the early years of childhood, causes problems in various aspects, particularly in the social and psychological development of the children. For the children without parental care, who are mentioned as children in need of protection (CNP) in this study, the relationship system which ordinarily occurs in a family, generally occurs between other actors (such as the attendants, volunteers and other CNP etc.) and takes place in children's villages instead of a family environment, in Turkey conditions. For this reason, analyzing the children's villages in terms of social interaction becomes crucial for these children's social development; as the main context of basic social relations of CNP. In this study, an answer is searched for the question: "How do environmental factors affect the social interaction of children in need of protection (CNP) in outdoor spaces in village-type settlements?" The study fills a significant research gap by focusing on CNPs, as a special user group that has not been studied extensively; and associating the phenomenon of social interaction with CNP, which is predominantly studied with adults in the literature. Also, focusing on the outdoor living conditions of CNP in a specific village-type settlement is another unique dimension of this study. It is important to analyze the children's villages as the mainstream care environment of CNP in Turkey in terms of the social interaction phenomenon; since these villages are expected to recoup the basic intrafamilial social relations. In this context, a historical search for the CNP care strategies was realized to contextualize the actual strategies. The conceptual framework of the study is structured based on previous works about social interaction and the factors effective on the interaction behavior. The holistic approach of the study including various environmental factors based on an extensive literature review is a noteworthy contribution to the research field. Ecological Psychology, in which behavior is handled interactively with both the social and physical context inherently and therefore the situation is examined in its natural environment, is considered as the base for the research approach. In this study, an elaborated observation technique was suggested to determine social interaction levels based on multiple observable indicators, as another important contribution. The technique was tested firstly on the pilot study in Bolluca Children's Village, and then in two study areas; Adana and Bursa Sırameşeler Children's Village's. The visual and written materials were reviewed for gathering spatial data; and the behaviors of CNP living in these children's villages were systematically observed. The relation between the spatial findings and the observational findings were analyzed in all case areas, the results of studies were obtained and discussed in comparative analysis. The results showed that it is important for CNP care institutions to provide opportunities similar to those provided by a family environment. Context and selection of the living environment is important for ensuring both security and social interaction with other socio-demographic groups; and thus, social inclusion of CNP. A pedestrianized large site and green low-density living environment is a supportive strategy for triggering social interaction behavior in outdoor living spaces. As for the layout pattern of the residential area, several strategies are found beneficial for triggering social interaction in the residential area; spreading residential functions throughout the settlement to multiple small-scale buildings instead of gathering into a single large-scale building; clustering these buildings and designing common shared spaces in between; specializing and furnishing spaces for playing and/or sitting functions; creating semi-public and semi-private spaces between the public and private spaces for disintegrating these spaces, and thus, creating a gradual transition. As for the population density and the structural density, a clear relation was not encountered. However, in the case areas that were found successful in terms of social interaction, the highest number of persons and buildings per area was calculated. The evaluation of the factors at singular-space scale revealed that all factors that are analyzed had a substantial effect on social interaction in the outdoor living spaces of CNP. A high level of visual connectedness and a high proximity to play contributed to higher social interaction levels. However, a high proximity to residential buildings contributed more to low and medium interaction levels, unless these effects are managed and directed by enhancing spatial hierarchy and functioning the common shared spaces with several playing and sitting furnishings. Also, it is revealed that the hardscaped and furnished spaces hosted more social interaction than the natural spaces, and higher quality furnishings promotes this effect. Furnishing spaces with seating units, especially arranging the controllable ones, and providing an increased level of enclosure in a space by top and/or side protections also contributed to social interaction. The spaces designed primarily for social functions are more beneficial for triggering social interaction, including the spaces designed for playing, sitting and gathering functions. Low functional connectedness and high functional variety in a space were found beneficial for high interaction levels. Further research that focuses on different user group(s), or utilizes various case studies with different characteristics and/or different contexts is required to support the conclusions of study. In addition, further contribution to the subject can be made by follow-up researches proposing methodologies based on different data gathering techniques. The subject of study can also be expanded with studies in which the effects of personal and socio-environmental factors are discussed, or the studies that lead to a comparison based on these factors such as a comparison between different age/gender groups or CNP and other children undeprived of a family environment etc. Nevertheless, this study is remarkable for revealing the potential of environmental factors to support the social interaction and the healthy development of these future adults for both their good and the good of society as a whole.