Yazar "Aygül, Mesut" ile Avrasya Yer Bilimleri Enstitüsü'a göz atma
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ÖgeKemer Metamorfitlerinin (Biga, Çanakkale) Jeolojik Evrimi Ve Jeodinamik Önemleri(Avrasya Yer Bilimleri Enstitüsü, ) Aygül, Mesut ; Topuz, Gültekin ; 252068 ; Katı Yer Bilimleri ; Solid Earth SciencesBiga Yarımadası'nın kuzeybatısı Rodop-Istranca ile Sakarya zonları arasındaki kenet zonuna karşılık gelmektedir. Kenet zonu, yüksek basınç metamorfitleri, ofiyolitik yığışım karmaşaları ve ofiyolitler tarafından temsil edilmekte ve Pontid-İçi Okyanusu'nun izini tanımlamaktadır. Kemer yöresi (Biga, Çanakkale) yüksek-basınç kayaları ve ofiyolitik yığışım karmaşığının yan yana görüldüğü önemli bir alandır. Kemer Metamorfitleri baskın olarak mikaşist, kalkşist, mermer ile tali oranda metabazit ve metaserpantinitlerden oluşmaktadır. Mikaşistler granat, fengit (3,30?3,44 c.p.f.u.), (±) paragonit, albit, epidot, klorit, kalsit, titanit ve turmalin minerallerini içermektedir. Metabazitler ise granat, barroyisit, (±) magnesiyo-hornblend, epidot, albit, titanit, kuvars, (±) klorit, (±) fengit ve (±) apatit minerallerini kapsamaktadır. Başkalaşım koşulları, 560-640 ºC sıcaklık ve 10-16 kbar basınç olarak sınırlandırılmıştır. Kemer Metamorfitleri güney sınırında bir okyanusal yığışım karmaşasıyla tektonik dokanaklıdır. Bu okyanusal yığışım karmaşası, makaslanmış kayrak nitelikli bir matrikse sahip olup, serpantinit, metabazit, çeşitli volkanitler, kireçtaşı, pelaijik kireçtaşı, radyolarit, kumtaşı ve konglomera blokları içermektedir. Bloklar farklı sıcaklık-basınç koşullarını işaret eden denge mineral topluluklarına sahiptir. Na-amfibol, Na-Ca-amfibol, lavsonit, Na-klinopiroksen, fengit, klorit, kalsit, albit, kuvars, titanit ve apatit minerallerinden oluşmakta olan bir metabazit örneğinin başkalaşım koşulları 270-310 °C sıcaklık ve 4,2-5 kbar basınç olarak sınırlandırılmıştır. Bir yeşilşist örneği ise aktinolit, klorit, epidot, fengit, albit, titanit, opak mineral ve apatitten oluşmaktadır. Tahmin edilen başkalaşım koşulları 290-340 °C sıcaklık ve 5,5-6,5 kbar basınçtır. Bu durum blokların yığışım karmaşasının farklı derinliklerinden geldiğini göstermektedir. Yüksek basınç başkalaşımın yaşını sınırlandırmak için, dört granat-mikaşist örneğinden seçilen fengitler üzerinde Rb-Sr yaş tayini yapılmıştır. Bu yaş tayinleri, 64 ile 84 My arasında saçılmakta ve Kemer yöresinde yüksek basınç başkalaşımının Geç Kretase'de gerçekleşmiş olduğunu göstermektedir. Biga Yarımadası'ndaki ve Güney Trakya'daki Geç Kretase yaşlı yüksek basınç metamorfitleri, Geç Kretase'de yörede aktif bir yitim olduğunu belgelemektedir. Kemer metamorfitlerinin kaya türleri bunların pasif bir kıta kenarında çökelmiş olduğunu işaret etmektedir. Devam eden yitime bağlı olarak kuzeydeki Rodop-Istranca kıtasal alanını eklenme ile yanal olarak büyürken, okyanusal alanın güneyinde yer alan pasif kıta kenarı başkalaşıma uğrayarak Biga Yarımadası'nda yüzeyleyen kıtasal kökenli yüksek-basınç metamorfitlerini oluşturmuştur. Yüksek-basınç metamorfitleri ve yığışım karmaşasının Eosen yaşlı volkanitler ve volkano-klastitler tarafından örtülmesi ve Eosen (~52 My) graniti tarafından kesilmesi mevcut okyanusal alanın kapanmasını, Geç Kretase-Erken Eosen olarak sınırlandırmaktadır.
ÖgePre-collisional Accretion And Exhumation Along The Southern Laurasian Active Margin, Central Pontides, Turkey(Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, 2015-11-25) Aygül, Mesut ; Okay, Aral ; 601092002 ; Climate and Marine Sciences ; İklim ve Deniz BilimleriThe Central Pontides is an accretionary-type orogenic area within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt characterized by pre-collisional tectonic continental growth. The region comprises Mesozoic subduction-accretionary complexes and an accreted intra-oceanic arc that are sandwiched between the Laurasian active continental margin and Gondwana-derived the Kırşehir Block. The subduction-accretion complexes mainly consist of an Albian-Turonian accretionary wedge representing the Laurasian active continental margin. To the north, the wedge consists of slate/phyllite and metasandstone intercalation with recrystallized limestone, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT= 7–12 kbar and 400 ± 70 ºC) and tectonic slices of serpentinite representing accreted distal part of a large Lower Cretaceous submarine turbidite fan deposited on the Laurasian active continental margin that was subsequently accreted and metamorphosed. Raman spectra of carbonaceous material (RSCM) of the metapelitic rocks revealed that the metaflysch sequence consists of metamorphic packets with distinct peak metamorphic temperatures. The majority of the metapelites are low-temperature (ca. 330 °C) slates characterized by lack of differentiation of the graphite (G) and D2 defect bands. They possibly represent offscraped distal turbidites along the toe of the Albian accretionary wedge. The rest are phyllites that are characterized by slightly pronounced G band with D2 defect band occurring on its shoulder. Peak metamorphic temperatures of these phyllites are constrained to 370-385 °C. The phyllites are associated with a strip of incipient blueschist facies metabasites which are found as slivers within the offscraped distal turbidites. They possibly represent underplated continental metasediments together with oceanic crustal basalt along the basal décollement. Tectonic emplacement of the underplated rocks into the offscraped distal turbidites was possibly achieved by out-of-sequence thrusting causing tectonic thickening and uplift of the wedge. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites are ca. 100 Ma, indicating Albian subduction and regional HP metamorphism. The accreted continental metasediments are underlain by HP/LT metamorphic rocks of oceanic origin along an extensional shear zone. The oceanic metamorphic sequence mainly comprises tectonically thickened deep-seated eclogite to blueschist facies metabasites and micaschists. In the studied area, metabasites are epidote-blueschists locally with garnet (PT= 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C). Lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the extensional shear zone (PT= 14 ± 2 kbar and 370–440 °C). They are possibly associated with low shear stress regime of the initial stage of convergence. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. These types of micaschists are tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic mineral assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone representing the zero strain domains during exhumation. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P= 17.5 ± 1 kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P= 16-18 kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (P= 22-25 kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile and apatite. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction with a southward younging of the basal accretion and the regional metamorphism. To the south, accretionary wedge consists of blueschist and greenschist facies metabasite, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalation. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating reveals that this part of the wedge is of Middle Jurassic age partly overprinted during the Albian. Emplacement of the Middle Jurassic subduction-accretion complexes is possibly associated with obliquity of the Albian convergence. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates of the deep-seated oceanic metamorphic sequence suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. Coupling and exhumation of the distinct metamorphic slices are controlled by decompression of the wedge possibly along a retreating slab. Structurally, decompression of the wedge is evident by an extensional shear zone and the footwall micaschists with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblasts. Post-kinematic garnets with increasing grossular content and pseudomorphing minerals within the chloritoid-micaschists also support decompression model without an extra heating. Thickening of subduction-accretionary complexes is attributed to i) significant amount of clastic sediment supply from the overriding continental domain and ii) deep level basal underplating by propagation of the décollement along a retreating slab. Underplating by basal décollement propagation and subsequent exhumation of the deep-seated subduction-accretion complexes are connected and controlled by slab rollback creating a necessary space for progressive basal accretion along the plate interface and extension of the wedge above for exhumation of the tectonically thickened metamorphic sequences. This might be the most common mechanism of the tectonic thickening and subsequent exhumation of deep-seated HP/LT subduction-accretion complexes. To the south, the Albian-Turonian accretionary wedge structurally overlies a low-grade volcanic arc sequence consisting of low-grade metavolcanic rocks and overlying metasedimentary succession is exposed north of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture (İAES), separating Laurasia from Gondwana-derived terranes. The metavolcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite/andesite and mafic cognate xenolith-bearing rhyolite with their pyroclastic equivalents, which are interbedded with recrystallized pelagic limestone and chert. The metavolcanic rocks are stratigraphically overlain by recrystallized micritic limestone with rare volcanogenic metaclastic rocks. Two groups can be identified based on trace and rare earth element characteristics. The first group consists of basaltic andesite/andesite (BA1) and rhyolite with abundant cognate gabbroic xenoliths. It is characterized by relative enrichment of LREE with respect to HREE. The rocks are enriched in fluid mobile LILE, and strongly depleted in Ti and P reflecting fractionation of Fe-Ti oxides and apatite, which are found in the mafic cognate xenoliths. Abundant cognate gabbroic xenoliths and identical trace and rare earth elements compositions suggest that rhyolites and basaltic andesites/andesites (BA1) are cogenetic and felsic rocks were derived from a common mafic parental magma by fractional crystallization and accumulation processes. The second group consists only of basaltic andesites (BA2) with flat REE pattern resembling island arc tholeiites. Although enriched in LILE, this group is not depleted in Ti or P. Geochemistry of the metavolcanic rocks indicates supra-subduction volcanism evidenced by depletion of HFSE and enrichment of LILE. The arc sequence is sandwiched between an Albian-Turonian subduction-accretionary complex representing the Laurasian active margin and an ophiolitic mélange. Absence of continent derived detritus in the arc sequence and its tectonic setting in a wide Cretaceous accretionary complex suggest that the Kösdağ Arc was intra-oceanic. This is in accordance with basaltic andesites (BA2) with island arc tholeiite REE pattern. Zircons from two metarhyolite samples give Late Cretaceous (93.8 ± 1.9 and 94.4 ± 1.9 Ma) U/Pb ages. Low-grade regional metamorphism of the intra-oceanic arc sequence is constrained 69.9 ± 0.4 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar dating on metamorphic muscovite from a metarhyolite indicating that the arc sequence became part of a wide Tethyan Cretaceous accretionary complex by the latest Cretaceous. The youngest 40Ar/39Ar phengite age from the overlying subduction-accretion complexes is 92 Ma confirming southward younging of an accretionary-type orogenic belt. Hence, the arc sequence represents an intra-oceanic paleo-arc that formed above the sinking Tethyan slab and finally accreted to Laurasian active continental margin. Abrupt non-collisional termination of arc volcanism was possibly associated with southward migration of the arc volcanism similar to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system. The intra-oceanic Kösdağ Arc is coeval with the obducted supra-subduction ophiolites in NW Turkey suggesting that it represents part of the presumed but missing incipient intra-oceanic arc associated with the generation of the regional supra-subduction ophiolites. Remnants of a Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic paleo-arc and supra-subduction ophiolites can be traced eastward within the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt. This reveals that Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic subduction occurred as connected event above the sinking Tethyan slab. It resulted as arc accretion to Laurasian active margin and supra-subduction ophiolite obduction on Gondwana-derived terranes.