Yazar "Karabay Korkmaz, Arzu" ile LEE- Moleküler Biyoloji-Genetik ve Biyoteknoloji-Doktora'a göz atma
Sayfa başına sonuç
ÖgeInvestigation of the effect of ATP13A2 (PARK9) frameshift mutation on the protein function(Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Kırımtay, Koray ; Karabay Korkmaz, Arzu ; 692806 ; Moleküler Biyoloji-Genetik ve BiyoteknolojiNeurodegenerative diseases occur due to deformations in the nervous system as a result of structural and functional disorders in nerve cells. In practice, neurodegenerative diseases are classified according to clinical and pathological findings. Genetic and epigenetic factors play essential roles on the basis of the disease pathology. Mutations that occur in different genes or at various points in the same gene act at the onset of the disease by acting on different molecular mechanisms. In many neurodegenerative diseases, overlapping clinical findings at the beginning and progression of the disease are the most critical limiting factors in making the correct diagnosis in these diseases. Rare neurodegenerative disorders, such as complex Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), Spino-cerebellar Ataxia (SCA), and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), have many common symptoms. Spastic Paraplegia-78, a subtype of HSP, and KRS have been associated with mutations in the ATP13A2 gene. In these two diseases that are inherited in autosomal recessive manner, different mutations in the ATP13A2 gene cause many common symptoms, making clinical diagnosis difficult. Genetic and functional molecular studies are important for the accurate diagnosis of the disease. Within the scope of this thesis, two cases in a consanguineous Turkish family were examined genetically and cellularly. Clinically, patients were diagnosed with "autosomal recessive spastic paraparesis" and/or "autosomal recessive ataxia" due to the observation of spasticity, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. In this thesis, gene mutations associated with the disease were screened by whole-exome sequencing in the family. Three variants of the ATP13A2 gene ("c.1422_1423del: p.P474fs", "c.G1426T: p.A476S" and "c.1429_1430insAAA: p.M477delinsKM") were detected as a result of whole-exome sequencing. The bioinformatics analysis determined that the "c.1422_1423del: p.P474fs" variant caused a frameshift and a premature termination codon. It was determined that the premature termination codon formed by the effect of frameshift causes the loss of N and P regions necessary for phosphorylation, which is important in the function of the ATP13A2 protein, resulting in the formation of a truncated protein of 519 amino acids. Following these data, ATP13A2 expression in primary fibroblast cells obtained from patients, their parents, and a healthy control was examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot method. According to the qRT-PCR result, it was determined that ATP13A2 mRNA was reduced by 60-70% in patients' fibroblasts compared to control fibroblasts. ATP13A2 mRNA was observed to decrease by 5-20% in the fibroblasts of the parents. When protein expression was examined by Western blot method, wild-type ATP13A2 protein with a molecular weight of 150 kDa was detected in the fibroblasts of control and parents. In comparison, the expected truncated protein around 50 kDa was not detected in the patient fibroblasts. The reason for not observing the truncated protein could possibly be to the fact that the produced truncated protein might have been degraded by proteasome machinery due to misfolding. In this context, truncated protein expression was investigated by inhibiting the proteasome mechanism with MG132. According to the Western blot result, mutant protein expression was not observed after MG132 application. Besides, BiP and PDI, which are endoplasmic chaperone proteins involved in protein folding, expressions were also examined, and no difference was observed in the expression of these two proteins. These results highlighted the possibility that the mutant ATP13A2 mRNA was targeted and degraded by NMD. To examine whether NMD degraded the mutant ATP13A2 mRNA, 5-azacytidine, which was shown to cause NMD inhibition by c-myc, was applied to fibroblasts. After 5-azacytidine administration, it was observed that the mutant ATP13A2 protein was expressed in patients' fibroblasts. However, the increase in both mRNA and protein levels in control fibroblast cells that do not carry mutations suggested that 5-azacytidine acts by a different mechanism independent of NMD. It is known in the literature that 5-azacytidine increases c-myc expression. Accordingly, after the 5-azacytidine treatment, c-myc expression was examined by Western blot, and an increase in c-myc expression was observed. In addition, the mutant ATP13A2 expression was detected in fibroblast cells differentiated from the patient's induced pluripotent stem cells in which c-myc had been expressing due to the presence of c-myc expressing Sendai virus. The reason for the increased ATP13A2 expression in both patient fibroblasts and control fibroblasts after 5-azacytidine suggested that the gene expression by c-myc may be transcriptionally regulated. When the ATP13A2 gene's promoter region was examined, the putative c-myc transcription factor binding sites were determined. These findings strengthen the possibility that the ATP13A2 gene can be regulated by c-myc. After 5-azacytidine treatment, NMD-independent increase in ATP13A2 expression was observed, fibroblasts were treated with NMDI-14, a specific NMD inhibitor, and a 2-fold increase in ATP13A2 mRNA level was observed in patient fibroblasts. In addition, mutant protein expression was detected in patients' fibroblasts. After determining that ATP13A2 protein was not expressed as a result of the mutation in the patients, based on the hypointense basal ganglion images on MRI, iron accumulation was examined by Prussian blue staining in the patient fibroblasts. Iron accumulation was found in the patient fibroblasts after staining. Later, the effect of iron deposition on cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. It was found that patient fibroblasts were more sensitive to iron overload. It is known that increased intracellular iron increases reactive oxygen species and triggers oxidative stress. In the presence of oxidative stress, the Nrf2 transcription factor is localized to the nucleus and provides the expression of several genes involved in oxidative stress defense. For this reason, the intracellular localization of Nrf2 was examined by immunocytochemistry. It was observed that Nrf2 was localized in the nucleus in the patient's fibroblasts, while it was mostly cytoplasmic in the parents' fibroblasts. These data show that patients have iron overload and oxidative stress due to accumulation.