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ÖgeComputing structural analogies of musical rhythms in visual design(Graduate School, 2021-06-24) Maden, Seçkin ; Özkar, Mine ; 523122004 ; Architectural Design ComputingThis thesis proposes a theoretical framework for incorporating musical compositional techniques into geometric design practices. It explores the computational properties of structural analogies and discusses their possible contributions to design and education. Although music and geometric design have been the fields that have been based on seemingly different conventions of production and representation, artist, designers, musicians, and scholars have not refrained from relating one to the other. Since Pythagoras, mathematics has been the main mediator in the correlation between music and geometry, and it has had a central role in exploring universal correspondences. Throughout this journey, a coherent link between music and geometry has not been established adequately. When computers entered the scene, it was believed that their excessive capabilities would provide a variety of solutions to the problem of revealing the common hidden order behind geometric and musical forms. However, concerning the integration of both ends, it turned out that computational means did not contribute to finding generalized, deterministic laws of associations. Instead, they had a role in creating an open-ended exploration space where correlations were established between individual discoveries of seeing and hearing. The dynamic nature of computational formalisms allowed each new discovery to reshape a proposed relationship between design and composition processes in its entirety. A common criticism of formal approaches in design and musical composition is that they limit creativity and spontaneity. However, when used to support the back-and-forth routine of creation processes, rule-based formalisms enhance the possibility of encountering emergent discoveries at the levels of within- and between-domains. In the practices of both musical composition and geometric design, the very nature of developing form is temporal and dynamic. When it comes to expressions, music occurs in time, and it is realized temporally, while geometric form occurs in two and three-dimensional space, and it is realized spatially. On the other hand, in design processes, the interpretation of spatial entities relies on temporal judgments similar to musical events. With the advent of computational formalisms, it is possible to produce hybrid forms of spatiotemporal compositions while incorporating musical kinds of progressions into geometric design scenarios. In this dissertation, the formalisms borrowed from musical composition techniques provide a multi-faceted display of geometric development by which it is enabled to explicate and trace design interventions not only in space but also in time-continuum. The possibility of evaluating the time-dependent development of geometric form in real-time unfolds the visual organization's each constituent one by one and the system that puts them together. Both in geometric design and music, analyzing and reproducing compositional elements in the time continuum provides enhanced control over the end form. The fragmented nature of a geometric design problem gains a more clear subdefinition, and it provides a better understanding of the overall scheme. The temporal nature of geometric pattern generation involves specific interrelationships between the parts and their constantly changing function in a whole. Enhanced control over time variables in such a dynamic process enables designers to produce more prosperous alternatives. Concerning the computational formalisms proposed in this thesis, the influence of musical temporality on the generation of geometric forms can be classified under two headings. The first one refers to the production of visual elements in time. In the proposed computational implementations, this corresponds to the step-by-step development of geometric lines in an additive manner, originating from the continuous and dynamic expression of musical lines. The second one addresses the kind of temporality that is present in underlying structural organizations of geometric and musical compositions. Since the initial focus of this dissertation is on the time aspects of both art forms, proposed analogies are limited to the domain of rhythm. The proposed computational model in this thesis communicates structural knowledge of particular compositional techniques in music to geometric pattern-making, where the temporal characteristics of the former determine the spatial features of the latter. The analyses show that the canonic and contrapuntal structures of musical rhythm can be described with formal languages, and their counterparts can be found in geometric patterns. Learning and computing musical structures of rhythm can enable designers and students to develop creative approaches and a multiplicity of solutions to pattern-based problems. In the computational model presented in this thesis, the interaction between geometric design and musical composition is evaluated as a form of communication, consisting of Encoding, Transcoding, and Decoding phases. The encoding of rhythmic musical structures and the decoding of geometric patterns are carried out in parallel with the standard communication model. The Encoding and Decoding phases are linked with the intermediary level of Transcoding, where the formalisms extracted from musical conventions of rhythm are formalized to be used in generating various geometric pattern classes. The proposed transcoding approach has its theoretical foundation in Lev Manovich and Fredric Jameson's views on the subject. The employed formalisms are mainly based on Chomsky's transformational grammars. They are adapted in a way to satisfy the needs of both design and musical functions. In general, the main outcome of this thesis is the outlined computational model developed for designers and design students to be used as a guide for musical analogies in their design processes. Through the Encoding, Transcoding, and Decoding levels of the model, it is aimed to communicate an analogy method that follows the steps of analysis, abstraction, formalization, and pattern generation. The evidence found in several studies shows that modeling musical analogies in this way can support individual processes of pattern making, systematic thinking, and creative problem-solving.