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ÖgeComputing structural analogies of musical rhythms in visual design(Graduate School, 2021-06-24) Maden, Seçkin ; Özkar, Mine ; 523122004 ; Architectural Design ComputingThis thesis proposes a theoretical framework for incorporating musical compositional techniques into geometric design practices. It explores the computational properties of structural analogies and discusses their possible contributions to design and education. Although music and geometric design have been the fields that have been based on seemingly different conventions of production and representation, artist, designers, musicians, and scholars have not refrained from relating one to the other. Since Pythagoras, mathematics has been the main mediator in the correlation between music and geometry, and it has had a central role in exploring universal correspondences. Throughout this journey, a coherent link between music and geometry has not been established adequately. When computers entered the scene, it was believed that their excessive capabilities would provide a variety of solutions to the problem of revealing the common hidden order behind geometric and musical forms. However, concerning the integration of both ends, it turned out that computational means did not contribute to finding generalized, deterministic laws of associations. Instead, they had a role in creating an open-ended exploration space where correlations were established between individual discoveries of seeing and hearing. The dynamic nature of computational formalisms allowed each new discovery to reshape a proposed relationship between design and composition processes in its entirety. A common criticism of formal approaches in design and musical composition is that they limit creativity and spontaneity. However, when used to support the back-and-forth routine of creation processes, rule-based formalisms enhance the possibility of encountering emergent discoveries at the levels of within- and between-domains. In the practices of both musical composition and geometric design, the very nature of developing form is temporal and dynamic. When it comes to expressions, music occurs in time, and it is realized temporally, while geometric form occurs in two and three-dimensional space, and it is realized spatially. On the other hand, in design processes, the interpretation of spatial entities relies on temporal judgments similar to musical events. With the advent of computational formalisms, it is possible to produce hybrid forms of spatiotemporal compositions while incorporating musical kinds of progressions into geometric design scenarios. In this dissertation, the formalisms borrowed from musical composition techniques provide a multi-faceted display of geometric development by which it is enabled to explicate and trace design interventions not only in space but also in time-continuum. The possibility of evaluating the time-dependent development of geometric form in real-time unfolds the visual organization's each constituent one by one and the system that puts them together. Both in geometric design and music, analyzing and reproducing compositional elements in the time continuum provides enhanced control over the end form. The fragmented nature of a geometric design problem gains a more clear subdefinition, and it provides a better understanding of the overall scheme. The temporal nature of geometric pattern generation involves specific interrelationships between the parts and their constantly changing function in a whole. Enhanced control over time variables in such a dynamic process enables designers to produce more prosperous alternatives. Concerning the computational formalisms proposed in this thesis, the influence of musical temporality on the generation of geometric forms can be classified under two headings. The first one refers to the production of visual elements in time. In the proposed computational implementations, this corresponds to the step-by-step development of geometric lines in an additive manner, originating from the continuous and dynamic expression of musical lines. The second one addresses the kind of temporality that is present in underlying structural organizations of geometric and musical compositions. Since the initial focus of this dissertation is on the time aspects of both art forms, proposed analogies are limited to the domain of rhythm. The proposed computational model in this thesis communicates structural knowledge of particular compositional techniques in music to geometric pattern-making, where the temporal characteristics of the former determine the spatial features of the latter. The analyses show that the canonic and contrapuntal structures of musical rhythm can be described with formal languages, and their counterparts can be found in geometric patterns. Learning and computing musical structures of rhythm can enable designers and students to develop creative approaches and a multiplicity of solutions to pattern-based problems. In the computational model presented in this thesis, the interaction between geometric design and musical composition is evaluated as a form of communication, consisting of Encoding, Transcoding, and Decoding phases. The encoding of rhythmic musical structures and the decoding of geometric patterns are carried out in parallel with the standard communication model. The Encoding and Decoding phases are linked with the intermediary level of Transcoding, where the formalisms extracted from musical conventions of rhythm are formalized to be used in generating various geometric pattern classes. The proposed transcoding approach has its theoretical foundation in Lev Manovich and Fredric Jameson's views on the subject. The employed formalisms are mainly based on Chomsky's transformational grammars. They are adapted in a way to satisfy the needs of both design and musical functions. In general, the main outcome of this thesis is the outlined computational model developed for designers and design students to be used as a guide for musical analogies in their design processes. Through the Encoding, Transcoding, and Decoding levels of the model, it is aimed to communicate an analogy method that follows the steps of analysis, abstraction, formalization, and pattern generation. The evidence found in several studies shows that modeling musical analogies in this way can support individual processes of pattern making, systematic thinking, and creative problem-solving.
ÖgeDesigning digitally-enhanced environments for children's play with everyday objects(Graduate School, 2021-09-30) Kay, İpek ; Özkar, Mine ; 523122009 ; Architectural Design ComputingOver the past years, several digitally-enhanced play environments have been developed. Today, digital technology is dispersed in the everyday settings children live, learn, and play in. In this thesis, the first aim is to contribute to design studies for children's playscape by developing a blended environment for children, particularly by stimulating their physical activity and narration. A second aim is to offer design guidelines for enhancing children's play and bodily movements in other contexts and enabling children to articulate spatial narrations. The third goal is to develop spatial interaction forms that enhance children's narration and bodily movement digitally enhanced environments. This goal requires understanding children's narrative play within actions, objects, and people to make new directions for future studies. In this context, creating possibilities for stimulating children's physical movements and actions while interacting with the digital environment and other children is essential. This aspect of embodiment refers to interaction with an environment through children's bodies and senses to enhance their awareness of their surroundings. Regarding an overview of related work in human-computer interaction, this study opens up a discussion on the intermediary capacities of objects. While identifying different interaction forms that children have with objects and position blended environments within this classification, this study offers a repertoire of roles children take on in the play. Concentrating on narration-heavy pretend play expands children's spatial experience in digitally-enhanced environments to encompass active engagement with objects. I proposed a framework with categories of interaction and a repertoire of roles that embody an unifying approach to designing an environment that sustains the values of bodily and sensorial experiences in children's playscapes. A formulation of the essential qualities for spatially may enable narration in play. Firstly, I categorized the different forms of interaction observed in relevant examples of digitally-enhanced narrative environments for children. The criteria were the distinction of physical and metaphysical scales of the interaction. These categories are the basis for exploring spatial features necessary for children's imaginative play in their everyday environments. Secondly, I depicted the narrating behaviors of children in playscapes based on patterns of full-body engagements with object/space in developmental psychology literature and recent human-computer interaction (HCI) research. The various forms of interaction yield to playscapes' digital and physical potential features. Thirdly, I established four basic design principles for digitally-enhanced playscapes that encompass the categories of interaction and the repertoire of roles towards promoting children's bodily interactions with everyday objects. These key features frame ways to introduce spatial narrative into playscapes by addressing the potential of digitally-enhanced environments for children's narrative worlds during pretend play. I present a framework for designing children's playscapes to co-construct narratives, engage in active exploration, and reflect on narrative experiences. Developing design principles have two main benefits as part of this research. The first is that these guidelines help other designers design digitally-enhanced playscapes for children's physical activity. The second benefit concerns the research process, and it orients the researcher. While establishing design principles, the second level in which design activity occurs focuses on creating spatial scenarios for children's narrations. These scenarios are developed as conceptual designs and prototypes as an integral part of the research. Working with prototypes helped emerge new ideas, so it becomes an exploration device throughout this study. And lastly, through the prototype, the interaction patterns were explored and evaluated whether the prototype sustains children's bodily and sensorial experiences. A novel digitally-enhanced physical environment was developed, called Monnom. It provides body-object interaction, only requires a webcam. Its algorithm recognizes physical objects within view and drives the interaction with a digital canvas. With Monnom, while children play with objects in their physical space, their stories simultaneously take shape in the digital environment. It may support children's understanding of the causal links by spatial experiences. The prototype has been assessed with children in a museum and a school. Throughout the evaluation, the aim was to understand whether tangible interaction supports physicality and forms of embodied experience. The Observational System for Spatial Narration of Children was developed to understand how children's interactions with Monnom affect their physical activity and peer communication. The thesis argues that blended environments which combine digital and physical media may contribute to the versatility of such spatial activity by focusing on supporting children's use of body movement and senses in narrative play.