Hizmet Sektöründe Kalite Olgusu Ve Metal Ticareti Yapan Bir Kuruluş Örneğinde Kalite Güvence Sisteminin Kurulması

Döner, Aytunç
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Kalite Güvencesinin sadece endüstriyel üretime yönelik işletmelerde uygulanması, her alanda tüketiciyi tatmin etmemektedir. Bu yüzden sürekli tüketiciyle karşı karşıya kalan hizmet sektöründe de böyle bir Kalite Güvence Modeline ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Çok yeni olan, Hizmet Sektöründe Kalite Güvence Modelinin oluşturulması ve uygulanması bu yüksek lisans tezinin ana konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışma giriş bölümü dışında dört bölümden oluşmuştur. İkinci bölümde kalite, kalite güvencesi, toplam kalite yönetimi, üretim kontrolü, KAİZEN gibi genel kısımlar açıklanmış, üçüncü bölümde hizmet sektöründe kalite olgusunun gerekliliği incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde ise Hizmet Sektöründe yer alan bir işletmenin ISO 9000 standartları çerçevesinde Kalite Güvence Modelini nasıl kuracağı ayrıntılı bir şekilde ve uygulamalı olarak açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Beşinci ve son bölümde ise bu işlemin yararlan ve farklı hizmet işletmelerinde Kalite Güvencenin önemine değinen yorumlara başvurulmuştur.
Consumers who to have always quality does not satisfy with Quality Assurance which applies only industrial production. That's why, in service sector which always facing with consumers, is needed a model of Quality Assurance. To be formed and applied the Quality Assurance Model in service sector which is very new, their working has been chosen by me. This working has been formed four chapters except of the introduction chapter. In the second chapter. Terms as ; quality assurance, total quality management, KAIZEN has been explained. In the third chapter, the quality in service sector has been examined. In the fourth chapter, How to establish a Quality Assurance Model with ISO 9000 standards for a firm in service sector has been explained with an example working. In the fifth chapter, various critics from managers in different service sectors and in the sixth chapter, there are results concerning to quality assurance in service sector. I have explained my working briefly above, and will explain details below more. Quality assurance is one of the most important concepts, especially in the industrial life but nowadays it is growing in service sector day by day. Each industrial and service company has lots of goals. Each company wants sell more products and earn more money. When it manufactures any product, spends a lot of money. Improving product and service quality gets a higher quality. Companies can reduce all types of cost and reach to very good quality level with Quality assurance model but costs are affected by quality at the present with a well - done, well organised and well planned quality assurance and quality control system, all kinds of costs can be reduced. Since the beginning of 1980's, the market economy has been effective all over the world. Globallization has become popular. Banking, foreign trading, communication systems and technology have became more effective. In the world economy demand used to be more than supply, but now supply is more than demand all over the world. If consumers' demand is more than supply, consumers desires are not very important. Manufacturers produce products and sell them to consumers. Because of the quality control of products, the prices increase, therefore consumers for these products have to spend more money. In the world economy in which supply is more than demand, quality of product becomes more important. Consumers can select products which are alternative to one another. Consequently producers have to produce their products in a high quality. Because they choose and purchase the product that they admire. xi Globallization all over the world affected Turkey just like all the other countries in the world. Turkey has got good commercial relations with European countries especially with the one, members of European Community such as Germany, France, Italy, England. Lots of Turkish industrial companies and industrial groups exports their products to European Community Countries. These Turkish companies which export their products have to take ISO 9000 Quality Assurance Certification owing to go on with their commercial life, because for these type of companies, it is difficult to go on with their commercial life without exporting to especially European Community Countries, because European Community Countries have the greatest market for exporting the industrial products. ISO 9000 Standards are international standards including ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 9003, ISO 9004. ISO 9000 Standards are called BS 5750 in United Kingdom, TS - ISO 9000 in Turkey. To be able to achieve the ISO 9000 Quality Assurance System is a good point for a company. This the result of globallization and the result of market economy. Exporting and importing facilities between the European Community Countries and other countries will get easier with the ISO 9000 certification The competition among, the companies producing the same or alternative products has been increasing since the 1980's.So as to compete to achieve ISO 9000 To show and explain the quality history briefly, we have to look the development from the 1930's to 1990's; 193 1 W.SHEWHART: Statiscal Quality Control 1940+ STANFORD'S Seminars in USA 1950 E.DEMING's Seminars in Japan 195 1 DEMING's Quality Awards in Japan 1952 Quality Control Journal in Japan 1954 J.JURAN Quality In Management 1954 Quality training in national radio programmes in Japan 1957 A.FEIGENBAUM: Total Quality Control 1961 K.ISHJKAWA: Quality Control Journal for workers in Japan 1962 K.ISHJKAWA: Quality Circles 1960+ G.TAGUCHI: Statiscal Experimants 1969 KOBE STEEL:Quality function deployment 1970+ S.SHINGO: Poka - Yoke 1970+ G.TAGUCHI: :Quality Loss Function 1976 T.OHNO: Toyota just in time system 1980+ G.TAGUCHI: Robotus Design 1990 and forward CREATED QUALITY Quality Assurance System and to give the Quality Assurance Certification are necessary but these are not enough The most important point is to be able to apply the Total Quality Management always starts with human quality. Human quality can improve with education. xii Total Quality Management has five important points. These are; 1- Leadership of top - level management 2- Focusing the customers 3- Workers' education 4- All types of group working 5- Adopting the Kaizen period. Total Quality Management is not an aim. It is the way to manufacture well quality products with a low cost and a higher quality. It is also the way for more successful management. In the firm taking Total Quality Management people are very important and they ought to be motivated, so their education in a firm is a very significant point. Workers education should be planned by top management of the firm. Human quality should be improved with education. For instance in Japan in many industrial firms, workers are educated five-hundred times in a decade. Top-level management should achieve the quality system "Quality is a management problem" was said by Dr. Juran, a famous American Quality Control expert. Not only the department of quality assurance and quality control but also all the people who work in the same firm are responsible for the development of quality. All people should participation, the quality development facilities. Firm Quality is very important and firm should have a good image for quality. For Total Quality Management leadership involves defining the needs for change, frame works for thinking about strategy, structures and people. Group facilities are very important for quality assurance. There are different kinds of group work. The most popular one is quality control circles. Quality Control Circles are developed by Dr. Kauru Ishikawa, Japanese quality control and quality assurance expert. First it was applied in the Japanese industrial firms. After that it became very popular in USA and Europe. Quality is not only necessary for industrial firms. Quality is necessary and have to applied by service sectors hotels, hospitals, trading and consulting firms etc. We can these sector, service sector. In service sector is very interested in people performance. If we care worker number in service sector, Quality Control Technics should be applied into the service sector. The main difference between service and manufacture sectors are; 1- Process are interested in with people in the service sector 2- Processing volume is bigger in the service sector 3- Consuming paper is higher in the service sector 4- Writing volume is higher in the service sector 5- Making mistake is higher in the service sector 6- The machine number is higher in the manufacture sector 7- You do not make a contract in the service sector 8- More competition in product selling compare to service selling. xni The main problems in service sector occurs while applying the Quality Assurance are; 1- Mistake rate is high 2- Spare time is high 3- Delaying time is high 4- Detailed problem can be occurred 5- Breaking can be occurred in base procedures 6- Living life is short 7- Cost is high 8- Claim by the customer is too much 9- Critical or control level can be over 10- Illegal working can occur. The showing points of a good design for the Quality Assurance are; 1- Customers come back 2- Customers are satisfy 3- No delaying in service and service is quick 4- All parts of participants work like the parts of a gear 5- All desires of the customer is made. To create a Quality Assurance System in a company, the main points are; 1- Aim should be clarify 2- The level which will reach should be clarify 3- An organisation should be create for reaching point 4- Development plan should be made 5- This plan should be understood by management and technical personal 6- All workers should be trained 7- Systems should be occurred 8- These systems should be controlled 9- Systems should be understood and applied 10- Mistakes in the system should be repair after audit 11- Continuously training of the workers. In 2000' s ISO 9000 Standards should be applied all sectors not only manufacture sector. If we understand carefully the result this development, we can clarify the main point of using ISO 9000 Standards in service sector. These causes can list as below; 1- The main difference between service and manufacture sectors is in service sectors all personal always face to face with the customer in all service level 2- Using of ISO 9000 Standards in service sector is needed very variety and wide documentation like manufacture sector 3- All personal should understand Total Quality Management and can apply successfuly xiv 4- Quality Control Circles should make in the company and personal which always with the customer should join and apply always these method, 5- Especially customer clients should evaluate and find solution in a circle period 6- System always should be evaluate and develop 7- The most important point is in the service sector to be quick and not make any mistake. 8- Actually some production analyses is not necessary in the service sector like statistical quality control 9- Claim management should be occurred and developed.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Hizmet sektörü, Kalite güvence sistemi, Metaller, Service sector, Quality assurance system, Metals