Hesaplamalı Tasarım Yaklaşımları : Bütünleşik Bir Tasarım Önerisi

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Tarih
2014-02-06
Yazarlar
İpek, Yekta
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Gelişen teknolojinin sağladığı imkanlar ile, hayatlarımızda tecrübe ettiğimiz büyük değişimler gibi yaşadığımız süreçler de derin değişimlere uğramıştır. İlerleyen teknoloji dolayısıyla üretilen bir çok araç, tasarım süreçlerimizi ve buna bağlı olarak tasarım algımızı değiştirmiştir. Bahsedilen bu değişimin son 50 yılda daha gözle görünür bir duruma gelmesi ve özellikle geçirdiğimiz son 15 yıl içinde gelişme ivmesinin daha da fazla artması konuyu önemli bir noktaya taşımıştır. Bu ivme tasarım süreçlerine hesaplamalı yaklaşımların girmesine ve bu hesaplamalı yaklaşımların tasarım süreçleri içinde kullanılmasnda etken olmuştur. Modernizm ile başlayan zaman diliminde, tasarım süreçlerinde disipliner bilgilerin bağlarının kopması durumu yaşanırken, bahsedilen son 15 yıllık süreçte bu bağların yeniden kurulması için yapılan çalışmalar önem kazanmıştır ve bu bağları tasarım ortamında farklı çerçevelerle tanımlayan yeni işbirlikçi ilişkiler ortaya konmuştur. Bu bağlamda, Modernizm ve modernizm öncesinde mimarlar ile mühendislerin birlikte çalıştığı ortamların birbirinden ayrışması ve strüktür bileşenin ana bileşeni olması göz önünde tutularak, strüktür tasarımının mühendislik ve mimarlık disipliner bilgileriyle beraber hesaplamalı yaklaşımların kullanılması ile yaratıcı ve yenilikçi tasarım süreçlerinin çıkma potansiyelinin yüksek olması motivasyonu ile bu tez çalışması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Tez çalışması kapsamında, modernizm ve hemen öncesinden başlayan mühendislik ve mimarlık disiplinlerinin arasındaki ilişkilerin günümüze kadar nasıl bir süreçte yol alındığından bahsedilerek, farklı disipliner bilgilerin arasında oluşturulmuş bağların örüntüleri incelenmiştir. Burada, bilgilerin ve yöntemlerin iç içe geçerek bütünleştiği dolayısıyla bütünleşik tasarım süreçlerine geçişimiz konu edilmiştir. Gelinen noktada mimarlık ile mühendislik iletişiminin ve ilişkisinin doğurduğu kavramlar, yine bunlara bağlı olarak gelişen tasarım süreçlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Günümüze gelindiğinde mühendislik ve mimarlık dijital araçlarının ne kadar örtüşerek, ne derecelerde beraber kullanıldığı incelenmiştir. Bu araçların herbirinin bütünleşik tasarım süreçlerini destekleyen araçlar olduğu söylenmektedir. Her biri farklı amaçlara yönelik üretilen dijital araçların beraber kullanımlarının, bütünleşik tasarım süreçlerinde farklı disipliner bilgilerin kullanılmasına olanak sağladığı göz önüne serilmiştir. Strüktür bilgisinin ve strüktür tiplerinin bugüne kadar nasıl kullanıldığı ve hangi tip sınıflandırmalar ışığında incelendiği açıklanarak bunların modernizm sonrası süreçte günümüze kadar olan güncel örnekler üzerinden analizleri yapılmıştır. Güncel yaklaşımlardan olan tasarımda hesaplamalı yaklaşımların, strüktür tasarımı süreçlerindeki rolü ve etkisi tartışılarak farklı yaklaşımlar incelenmiştir. Tüm bu tartışmalar ve incelemeler ışığında ortaya bir sentez koyularak, tezin çalışma odağını oluşturan hesaplamalı yaklaşımların kullanıldığı bir bütünleşik tasarım önerisi yapılmıştır. Bu öneri anlatılanların sentez bir modeli olacak şekilde kurgulanmıştır. Ortaya koyulan sentez ile, dijital araçların ve hesaplamalı yaklaşımların ve farklı disipliner bilgilerin tasarım süreçlerine dahil edilmesi, daha yaratıcı ve yenilikçi ürünlerin oluşturulmasına yol açarken süreçlerin üretkenliğini güçlendirmektedir. Öte yandan bütünleşik tasarım süreçleri, karmaşık karakteristik gösteren tasarım problemlerine getirilecek önerilerin üretilmesinde avantajlı konuma geçmektedirler.
By the means of the potentials offered by developments in technology field, the continuums in that we live have exposed to big shifts like the big changes that we experience in our lives. The tools offered by technological improvements have changed the design process; therefore, they have changed the design perception. The big shift, mentioned above, has been revealed in the last 50 years and it becomes one of the hot topics in the literature because of the rapid increment of the acceleration of developments in technology field. While these improvements have caused computational approaches to penetrate into design process, the topic of using computational approaches in the design process has become another hot topic in design literature. On the other hand, in the period that started with modernism, it had been experienced that the links between different disciplinary knowledge had been cut off. Therefore, in the last fifteen-year-period, the studies to reconnect and redefine the links have been gaining the importance and it has been postulated new frameworks for defining the links for new collaboration environments. These studies induce new disciplinary relationships that emerges new fields to study as new disciplines. In the architectural field, new collaborative working environments had started to be seen with the start of the usage of steel in building design. Coining the term “tension” was a milestone for architects and structural engineers to create new collaborative environments together. In this context, by considering the importance of structural design layer within architectural design schema, this thesis has been done with the motivations: • To alter the potentials of the differentiation of the working environments between architects and engineers in the period of modernism and pre-modernism • To reveal the potential to create more creative and more innovative design outputs by the help of combination of different disciplinary knowledge, architectural and engineering. Within the scope of the thesis, it is examined how the links between the disciplines, architecture and engineering, go through within the time passing from pre-modernism to today. Moreover, it is examined the patterns of the collaboration frameworks for different disciplinary knowledge; therefore, it is revealed how the frameworks can help to combine different knowledge and how it is shifted to integrated design processes from conventional design processes. In this sequence, it is mentioned the new terms popped up by the interaction between architects and engineers within the contemporary frameworks. Another question within the context of this thesis is reviewed: In recent times, how do the digital tools in the field architecture and engineering overlap and how much can they be integrated? After having been put forward the studies of Finite Element Method and its computational aspect, engineers widely started using computational finite element tools in their problem solving processes. Therefore, the information production has become rapid and accurate. Furthermore, the capabilities of the computational tools create useful information to be used as inputs for different disciplines. Hence, the information flow between disciplines become integrative and combinatorial. In this sense, it is pronounced that the digitals tools, produced for different usage, have the potentials to support the integrated design process and to attach the different disciplinary knowledge into design process environment. To better clarify the digital tools, it is gone through the topics: Geometrical representation in digital environment, finite element methods, digital tools for analysis, simulations, building information models. Taking into consideration the fact that the main layer of architectural design, which is structural layer, is the main collaborative and the most visible component of the building design. Therefore, it is conveyed the different structure types and the different classifications in this section. After focusing and discussing several structural taxonomies, it is analysed the structure examples of the building in the last sixty-year-period by focusing on the stuctural taxonomies mentioned. Considering the fact that structures are the main attraction for architects in time due to its significant role creating geometries and make them stand. The analysed examples in this section gives the direction to discuss how the designers and engineers collaborated and combined their knowledge and what kind of structure types used for the specific cases. In one section in the thesis, it is focused on computational approaches in design field specifically in structural design as one of the contemporary approaches in design. Geometry is the most important component of the structures as it contain the information for representation, analysis, and construction; therefore, geometry is disscussed focusing on the potentials and significance in structures. Furthermore, related to geometry, self organisation concept is discussed as a geometrical computational approach; in this sense, deterministic and non-deterministic approaches is focused. Moreover, it is reported the four different computational methods that have the potential to integrate the performative concepts in to design. As a compact statement, It is discussed the different computational approaches used for design of structures and revealed their potentials, roles and effects in the design process. After all the reviews and discussions, it is postulated a synthesis which is a proposal for the computational integrated design approach as a focal point of the thesis. This proposal is a synthesised model, which is framed by the topics and the ideas that are mentioned in the thesis. In the proposal, the performative values integrated to structural pattern which is composed on the given form and the structural performance data is converted into geometrical data on the double-curved surface to make the output be converged to much more optimised solution. The surface on which the pattern is formed, is analysed using the finite element methods to obtain values on the surface. After creating the performative value output, which is the one of the inputs of design process, according to the data obtained, the surface pattern is generated. In the framork of the proposed synthesis, it is revealed the distinction between deterministic approaches and non-deterministic approaches in design process. Deterministic approaches and non-deterministic approaches are two design methods used during the problem solving process in the ill-defined problems. The deterministic approach commonly used while non-deterministic approach has limited use in the architectural design. Deterministic approaches in architectural design leads the designer to arrive to concrete solutions and to produce one exact solution based on the data driven from the parameters. If no change occurs in the parameters, the solution does not change. Thus, randomness has no place in finding the final solution. It has been choosen as surface pattern type, the voronoi, to optimise a design problem. A voronoi pattern is produced on a double-curved surface as a structural element. Voronoi pattern gives the designer a chance of optimisation within the critical boundaries of structural performance. It is possible to perceive the grid, the point set, pattern structural system, and the stress map simultaneously while using the proposed model. At initial design stages, the user is able to form the pattern directly, and other components indirectly. Using the interface, user is able to control distribution and density of the control points that direct the deformation of the pattern. Thus, the user can watch all of the deformations throughout the design product. Using this approach, it is possible to create multiple solutions meeting the structural requirement The proposed model helps to construct the link between geometric and structural topics and help to remove contradiction between optimisation and generative concepts. By merging optimisation and generative concept, the paper demonstrates to extract the implicit structural and geometrical potentials of patterns as structures. Moreover, the proposed model at the initial stage of the design process offers the designer a decision support system. The solutions generated by the system converge to the optimum solution, which meets the performance requirements. Therefore, the proposed approach reduces the time spent to make the design outcome realistic. Additionally, the proposed approach boosts of generative methods by using optimisation methods and makes the design process more performance oriented. To conclude with, the designer enriches the solution set around the convergent ones to the optimum solution by the help of the embedded performance intelligence. With the proposed model, the design process becomes much more creative and innovative than before, by attaching the computational approaches and different disciplinary knowledge into the process. These tools and approaches enrich the design process making it more generative. On the other hand, integrated design approaches become more advantageous comparing the conventional design ones when producing the proposals for complex-characterised-problems.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Hesaplamalı Tasarım, Strüktürel Optimizasyon, Performans Tabanlı Tasarım, Bütünleşik Tasarım, Strüktür Tasarımı, Tasarım Mühendisliği, Computational Design, Structural Optimisation, Performans Based Design, Integrated Design, Structural Design, Design Engineering
Alıntı