Performans Tabanlı Tasarıma Bütünleşik Yaklaşım

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Tarih
2016-01-07
Yazarlar
Şahin Karagöz, Benan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Son yılardaki hızlı teknolojik gelişmeler hemen hemen bütün mesleki pratiklerin işleyişini ve algılanışını etkilemiştir. Bu değişimlerle birlikte, mimarlık pratiği ve mimarın rolü de radikal bir biçimde evrilmiştir. Hızlı teknolojik gelişmeler ve bilişim teknolojilerinin kullanımının yaygınlaşması ile dijital araçlar ve teknikler tasarımcının rolünü belirleyici birer faktör haline gelmiştir. Bilişim araçları, mimarın tasarım sürecinin ve tasarıma bakış açısının derin bir biçimde değişmesine sebep olmuştur. Vitruvius De architectura libri decem kitabında mimarlığın üç temel niteliğini firmitas(sağlamlık), utilitas(kullanışlılık), venustas(estetik) olarak tanımlamıştır (Rowland ve Howe, 1999). Daha sonraki mimarlık kuramcıları, mimarlığın analizi, değerlendirilmesi, anlamının tartışılması ve eleştirilmesi adına farklı yöntemler ortaya koysalar bile, Vitrivius'un tanımı günümüzde hala mimari ürünün eleştirilmesi ve incelenmesi adına geçerli bir temel sağlamaktadır. Buna rağmen, günümüz mimari tasarım pratiğinde, mimarların ve mühendislerin rolü keskin bir biçimde ayrılmıştır. Mimar, yapının biçim ve fonksiyon ("untilitas", "venustas") gibi özelliklerinden sorumlu hale gelirken, mühendis matematiksel "firmitas" sorumluluğunu üstlenmiştir. Günümüz mimarlık pratiğinde bilişim teknolojileri tasarımda önemli bir rol oynamalarına rağmen, performans verilerin tasarım süreci içerisinde düşünülmesi henüz yeterince yaygın bir anlayış değildir. Performans ve tasarımın ilişkisi, çoğunlukla bitmiş bir tasarım ürününün performansının bilişim araçları ile değerlendirilmesi şeklinde olmaktadır. Performansın geometrik olmayan yönlerini (ekonomik, çevresel, strüktürel vb.) henüz tasarıma dair kesin kararlar alınmamışken değerlendirmek, tasarım alternatiflerini ve sonuç ürünü etkileyip, tasarım sürecini değiştirebilir. Ayrıca, farklı disiplinlere ait bilgilerin entegre edildiği tasarım süreçleri, karmaşık problemlere getirilecek çözümleri daha tatminkâr hale getirebilmektedir. Bilişim araçlarının ayrışmış disiplinlere ait bilgileri bir araya getirmek amacıyla kullanılması, tasarım sürecindeki yaratıcılığı ve yenilikçiliği arttırarak süreci daha üretken bir hale getirebilir. Performansa dair değerlendirmelerin temel düzeyde bir hâkimiyetle tasarımcı tarafından tasarım süreci ile eş zamanlı ve küçük iterasyonlar ile yapılması, performansı biten bir ürünün değerlendirilmesi olmaktan ziyade tasarım kararlarını yönlendirici bir boyut olarak ele almayı sağlayarak bütünleşik süreçleri destekleyecektir. Tüm bu tartışmalar ve incelemeler ışığında ortaya bir sentez koyularak, var olan bilişim araçları kullanılarak bütünleşik bir tasarım önerisi yapılmıştır. Bu öneri anlatılanların sentez bir modeli olacak şekilde kurgulanmıştır. Ortaya koyulan sentez ile bilişim araçlarının ve farklı disiplinlere ait bilgilerin tasarım süreçlerine dahil edilmesi yaklaşımı, daha yaratıcı ve yenilikçi ürünlerin oluşturulmasına katkı sağlamakta ve süreçlerin üretkenliğini güçlendirmektedir. Öte yandan bütünleşik tasarım süreçleri, karmaşık karakteristik gösteren tasarım problemlerine getirilecek önerilerin üretilmesinde de avantajlı konuma geçmektedirler.
In recent years, rapid technological advances have affected the operation and perception of almost all professions. With these changes, the practice of architecture and the architect's role have evolved radically too. The expansion of digital devices with rapid technological developments and the use of information technologies and techniques has become a factor determining the role of the designers. Digital tools has led to a profound change in design process and in the architect's point of view for design. Vitruvius defines the three basic qualities of architecture in the book De architectura libri decem as firmitas (durability), utilitas (usability), venustas (aesthetics) (Rowland and Howe, 1999). Even though architectural theorists exert their different ways on criticisms and evaluation of architecture, Vitruvius definition still provide a valid basis today on behalf of criticism and examination of architectural products. However, in the current practice of architectural design, the role of architects and engineers are sharply separated. Architects became responsible for features such as, building function and form ("untilitas", "venustas") while engineers were taking the mathematical "firmitas" responsibility. Despite the fact that information technology play an important role in today's architectural design practice, the use of building performance data in the early stages of design process is not yet common. The relationship between performance and design is mostly in the form of using digital tools to evaluate the performance of a finished design product. However, using the non-geometric aspects of performance (economic, environmental, structural, etc.) in the early stages of design process may affect design alternatives and the final product may by altering the design process. In addition, the design process that integrates information of different disciplines can provide more satisfactory solutions to complex problems. The use of digital tools to bring together the information that belongs to disciplines may increase creativity and innovation in the design process and can make it more productive. Assessment of performance concurrently with the design process by designers with the basic knowledge of performance evaluation with small iterations makes the term performance the router design decisions rather than evaluator of a finished end product. The concept of the performance is seen to comprise a wide meaning in the literature. The main objective of building performance is defined by American Association of Architects (AIA)as : "To ensure the efficiency of buildings with functional and environmental characteristics; such as thermal, atmospheric, acoustic and visual quality etc. [...] the integrity of the building and to provide organizational effectiveness; flexibility, endurance, structural and fire safety, [...] to ensure equitable resource use efficiency and ensure compliance with the urban fabric and the built environment; materials, land, water, energy, waste, infrastructure and so on. Performance concept is a basic issue of contemporary architectural theory and practice. Building performance and behavior of designer can be important forces in the design process and cannot be considered as a duty to be applied later on. Performance-Based Design can be defined as a design paradigm whose primary objective is to meet functional, environmental, safety, and structural, financial vs. requirements of building performance. Digital tools such as optimization and simulation tools etc. are the main design tools. Generative Design on the other hand, can create a variety of design solutions thanks to algorithmic and rules-based processes. Cellular automata, L-systems, shape grammars and generative design systems are used as main design methods and used as a form finding method. Recently, there appears a new design paradigm called Performance-based Generative Design. As the name suggests, it involves the two design paradigms that previously mentioned. In Performance-based Generative Design, both building performance and form are the governing factors of design development. Indeed, Performance-based Generative Design is a design paradigm which benefits from the guidance of performance data across different disciplines, digital tools, generative systems, simulation techniques and optimization algorithms. However, it is quite obvious by examining the results of the work in this area that reducing performance goals to a single discipline is a common attitude to Performance-based Design. An integrated design approach that addresses integrated multiple building performances from different disciplines can fill this gap. In this case, Generative Performance-based Design approach is required to be evaluated as Generative Performance-based Integrated Design. The relationship between form and building performance may be in different ways. It has been one of the main issues of architectural theory and practice throughout history. This discussion is based on the fact that architectural design is both science and art. Consequently, design must meet both aesthetic and functional requirements. In this thesis, the term "integrated" is taken not as a geometric representation of an object alone. On the contrary, the term targets integral design solutions and addresses form and performance duality which turns to be a synergy through multiple effects and behaviors. An alternative design approach to deal with multiple building performances is recommended. More specifically, integrated design is viewed in terms of both of discovery forms and analysis of building systems simultaneously in the early stages of design to meet the performance and efficiency criteria from different disciplines. The use of integrated design approach is believed to be potential benefits too. For example, the net increase was in the number of design scenarios and alternatives, improve the overall design concept, suggesting the emergence of a multi-disciplinary cooperation, reduction of iterations in the design cycle can be some of them. In addition, Integrated Performance Based Design can help to reach new levels complexity and provide emergence possibilities. The potential benefits should not lead to the conclusion that this approach has no difficulties or weaknesses. Actually, many changes may be needed for the fulfillment of an integrated design approach. However, the problem and the hypotheses are envisaged within the scope of this thesis as described below. Problem: The relationship between performance and design occurs as in the form of evaluating the performance of a finished product design as a common attitude. Hypothesis: There is a need for a design environment in which all aspects of performance are needed to be evaluated (by using digital tools) in the early stages of the design process. Performance evaluation of design decisions (predominant in basic level) without the need for a third expert, with small iterations will enable an integrated design processes and richer design cluster. Thinking the term performance not as an evaluator of already finished process, but as a router design evolution can affect design decisions by showing the designers different results. In this study, firstly the decomposition of different disciplines, and reintegration efforts in the era of information and technology and the changing forms of interaction between designer and design as a result of introduction of digital tools into the design concept were discussed. Next, contemporary approaches to Performance-based Design and performance strategies of designers are examined through the designer's project in Performance-based Design literature between the years 2010-2015. The three basic questions asked to the examples are as follows: What are the project's design goals? How they use digital tools to evaluate the performance? How performance-design process relationship is handled? In this chapter, "performance-process-tools" have been discussed. An integrated design proposal is put forward using existing digital tools in the light of a synthesis of all these discussions and investigations. Synthesis of this proposal is expected to be a model for integrated performance based design process. The synthesis set forth by information from different disciplines to be included in the design process with the help of digital tools and approaches, led to the creation of more creative and innovative products, strengthen the productivity of the process and support an integrated design process. Additionally, integrated design processes take the advantageous position in the production of proposals brought to complex design problems.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2016
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2016
Anahtar kelimeler
Performans, Performans Tabanlı Tasarım, Bilişim Araçları, Bütünleşik Tasarım, Performans Tabanlı Bütünleşik Tasarım, Performance, Performance-based Design, Digital Tools, Integrated Design, Performance-based Integrated Design
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