Şekerleme Endüstrisinde Proses Ve Kirlenme Profili İle Arıtılabilirlik Bazlı Deneysel Karakterizasyon

dc.contributor.advisor Altınbaş, Mahmut tr_TR
dc.contributor.author Karagül, Nursel tr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID 426783 tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Çevre Mühendisliği tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Environmental Engineering en_US
dc.date 2012 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-22 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2015-09-02T11:25:06Z
dc.date.available 2015-09-02T11:25:06Z
dc.date.issued 2012-05-23 tr_TR
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012 tr_TR
dc.description Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012 en_US
dc.description.abstract Şekerleme endüstrisi, lokum, yumuşak-dolgulu-dolgusuz şeker, çikolata, gofret, sakız, draje, ezme...vb. şekerlemelerini üreten kuruluşları kapsamaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında tesise ait yerleşim ve üretim miktarları verilmiştir. Şekerleme üretimi endüstrisinin Su Kirliliği Kontrol Yönetmeliği’ndeki alt kategorisi belirlenmiş, üretim prosesleri tanıtılarak, tesiste üretilen ürünler tanımlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada incelenen şekerleme endüstrisinde yumuşak şekerleme, dolgulu-dolgusuz sert şekerleme, çikolata, şekerli-şekersiz sakız, draje ve jelibon ürünleri imal edilmektedir. Tesisin üretim kapasitesi 46230 ton ürün/yıl civarındadır. Bu ürünlerin üretimi esnasında pişirme kazanı, karıştırma kazanı, şekillendirme, soğutma tüneli gibi ambalajlanana kadar olan bu işlemler sonucu proseslerde atıksu oluşmaktadır. Şekerleme endüstrisinde kullanılan su miktarının yüksek ancak oluşan atıksu miktarının düşük olmasına rağmen yüksek kirletici konsantrasyonuna sahiptir. Bu endüstride şekerleme ürünlerinin üretimi sonucu oluşan atıksular şeker-jelibon-sakız 1 hattı, sakız 2 hattı ve jelibon hattı olmak üzere 3 ayrı hattan endüstriye ait atıksu arıtma tesisine gelmektedir. Bu şekerleme endüstrisi atıksularının arıtıldığı Atıksu Arıtma Tesisi, ızgara, DAF ve Dengeleme ünitelerinden oluşan fiziksel arıtma ile iki kademeli (anaerobik+aerobik) biyolojik arıtma ve çamur işleme birimlerini içeren kompleks bir sistemdir. Bu arıtma sistemine gelen şeker-jelibon-sakız1, sakız 2 ve jelibon hatlarından 2 hafta boyunca 6 farklı güne ait 24 saatlik kompozit numune, arıtma tesisi içinde yer alan döner elek çıkışı, 2.dengeleme çıkışı, EGSB (genleşmiş granüler havasız çamur yatağı) anaerobik reaktör çıkışı, 1.havalandırma havuzu çıkışı, çökeltme havuzu çıkışı, vakumsuyu çıkışı, çamur süzüntü suyu havuzu çıkışı ünitelerinden bir hafta boyunca 2 farklı güne ait 24 saatlik kompozit numune, 2.havalandırma havuzu çıkışı, çökeltme havuzu geri devir çamuru ünitelerinden de bir hafta boyunca 2 farklı güne ait anlık numune alınmıştır. Ayrıca EGSB reaktöründe bulunan 8 ayrı musluktan bir hafta boyunca 2 farklı güne ait anlık numune alınmıştır. 1.dengeleme tankı, 2.dengeleme tankı, şartlandırma tankı, anaerobik reaktör, kimyasal madde beslemesi için kostik tankı, H3PO4 tankı, FeCl3 tankı birimleri anaerobik arıtma kademesinde yer almaktadır. 1.havalandırma havuzu, 2.havalandırma havuzu ve çökeltim havuzu birimleri havalandırmalı aktif çamur prosesi olarak projelendirilen iki kademeli aerobik arıtma kademesinde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ele aldığımız şekerleme endüstrisi atıksularının şeker, sakız, jelibon hatlarından ve atıksu arıtma tesisindeki birimlerinden alınan numunelerin her birine AKM, UAKM, pH, iletkenlik, KOİ, Çözünmüş KOİ, BOİ, Azot Tayini, Fosfor Tayini, Amonyak, anyon ölçümü, sudaki kalsiyum, magnezyum, sodyum, bakır, çinko, potasyum ölçümü, EGSB reaktöründeki musluklardan alınan numunelerin TKM ve TUKM gibi bu şekerleme endüstrisine ait atıksuların arıtılabilirliklerini belirleyen parametre esaslı deneysel çalışmalar ile atıksu karakterizasyonu yapılarak, şekerleme endüstrisine ait proses ve kirlenme profili oluşturulmuştur. İncelenen şekerleme endüstrisine ait atıksu arıtma tesisi çıkışında AKM konsantrasyonu ortalama < 15 mg/L, KOİ konsantrasyonu ise < 40 mg/L olarak bulunmuştur ve bu değerler Su Kirliliği Kontrol Yönetmeliği’ndeki deşarj limitlerini karşılamaktadır. Laboratuvar ortamında anaerobik reaktör kurularak inert fraksiyonları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca tesisin Mayıs 2009-Nisan 2011 dönemleri arasındaki mevcut tesis kapasitesi irdelenerek arıtma tesisinin performans değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. Yapılan karakterizasyon çalışmasında elde edilen veriler literatürle karşılaştırılmıştır. ux tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Confectionery industry, candy, soft-filled-unfilled sugar, chocolate, wafers, chewing gum, coated tablets, crushing .... etc. includes establishments producing candies. Products of confectionery industry, depending on taste and attention than in previous years has become the most widely consumed products. The main raw materials used in the confectionery industry, sugar, glucose, suve and various additives, as well as various wet and dry fruits, sugar syrups prepared in the main raw materials used to be coated. Candies, sugar, and glucose or sugar in baked after only citric acid, tartaric acid or as a result of estimation by the addition of potassium Bitartrate dough, according to the type of product to be produced in milk, milk powder, gelatin, oil and added substances such as aromatic substances and shaping food packaging obtained from. Creates a large part of the structure of carbohydrates in sweet things. Used in the manufacture of sugar sweets, sucrose and derivatives thereof. Sucrose, sugar beet or cane sugar refining is achieved by special techniques is processed. Another important for the production of confectionery material in a corn starch obtained from a special production technique is glucose. Glucose, the sugar is crystallized acts, providing convenience to the processing of more help to shape properly. Sweets, Turkish Food Codex is divided into groups as follows: &#9830; Hard candy &#9830; Soft candy &#9830; Jelly confectionery &#9830; Candy Dragee &#9830; Tablet sugars &#9830; Fruit candies &#9830;Almond paste, and so on &#9830; Koz halva, and the like torrone &#9830; Fund &#9830; Krokan &#9830; Filled confectionary products Other sugar products; &#9830; Halwa &#9830;Chewing gum &#9830; Delight &#9830; Chocolate Hard candies, sucrose, glucose syrup and / or invert sugar is cooked with a high degree of glassy and amorphous form obtained by concentrating the mass of sugar, as well as flavors, colorants and flavoring agents may contain (the amount of moisture up to 3%). Although quite a simple method of production of hard candy, if not carried out in accordance with technical rules, such as crystallization, and defects in adhesion may occur as soon as possible. Marshmallows; Toffe raw materials used in construction of properties and caramel toffee, milk, milk fat and vegetable oil comes from. The difference between caramel and toffee candy chewing Toffe feature is adding to gelatin or album. Toffler also be made with milk. Jelly candies, sweets have an important role in other than the low degree of sugar products are prepared by cooking and, therefore, is higher in humidity (15-20%). The typical structural features of these products is provided gelling agents. These starch, gelatin, pectin, gum arabic and agar. Other raw sugar and glucose syrup. Gelling agent used in accordance with, hard, soft, elastic, easy to cut and so on. confectionery is obtained from various tissues and structures. Dragees; core part of the non-chocolate candy, including chocolate and non-core part of the two types of dried fruit. Chewing gums, gomelastik (yeast gum), sugar, glucose, essential oil, synthetic waxes and glycerol, wax, oil and emilgatör (softening agents) consisting of a mixture obtained by packaging the dough product is divided into specific shapes. Chewing gums; &#9830; Sugar &#9830; Unsweetened &#9830; sweetener to be divided into three. Grouped as a balloon and uncuffed. Confectionery industry, which are taken up, sugar, gum, and jelly, including 3 different types of confectionery products are manufactured. During the production of these products, the cooking vessel, mixing tank, forming, cooling tunnel to packaging as a result of these operations, consists of wastewater processes. Wastewater of production of confectionery industry is usually acidic in nature. High amount of water used in the confectionery industry, but despite the low amount of wastewater, has a high concentration of pollutants. Because of the high organic matter concentration in wastewater of confectionery industry, a one-stage treatment is not sufficient to discharge. The biological treatment method of anaerobic treatment, the reduction of organic pollution, especially that wastewater is applied (sugar, yeast, corn, starch, milk products, alcohol, cellulose and paper) of food production and agro-based industries. This application, the correct sizing of the first stage of wastewater treatment plant correctly identify the characteristics of the input is great importance. Anaerobic treatment is applied as a pre-treatment and removal of very large quantities of organic matter is provided. Wastewater of complex organic matter content of containing organic matter, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) is the main parameters, such as oil and grease. Confectionery industry, according to the Water Pollution Control Regulations (2004) sugar production and similar sub-category fall into the category of food industries. Regulation of sugar production and equivalents at the specified discharge standards are given 450 mg/L for COD and 80 mg/L for TSS. In this study, the biological treatment of wastewater were investigated, engaged in the production of sugar, gum and jelly from confectionery industry. Wastewater resulting from the production of confectionery products in this industry, sugar-jelly-gum 1 line, gum 2 line and Jelly line, including 3 separate lines of the industry comes from a wastewater treatment plant. Wastewater Treatment Plant is a complex system, the tratment of wastewater in confectionery industry, containing the grid, DAF (Dissolved air flotation), and the balancing units of the physical teratment with the two-stage (anaerobic + aerobik) biological treatment and sludge processing units. From sugar-jelly-gum 1, gum 2, and jelly lines to the treatment system in 6 different days during two weeks, rotating sifter output, 2. Balancing output, EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed) anaerobic reactor output, 1. aeration tank output, sedimentation tank output, vacuum water output, sludge filtrate water tank output units within the treatment plant in 2 different days during the week of 24-hour composite sample, 2. aeration tank output, sedimentation tank sludge recycle units, instant of the sample taken from 2 different days during the week. In addition, instant of the sample was taken 2 different days during the week from the 8 different taps of EGSB reactor. 1. balancing tank, 2. balancing tank, conditioning tank, anaerobic reactör, caustik tank for feeding of chemicals, H3PO4 tank, FeCl3 tank units are located in the anaerobic treatment stage. 1. aeration tank, 2. aeration tank, and sedimentation tank units are located, aeration activated sludge process designed as a two-stage aerobic treatment stage. Samples taken from each of the units mentioned in sugar, gum, Jelly lines and wastewater treatment plant, SS, VSS, pH, conductivity, COD, soluble COD, BOD, Nitrogen Determination, Determination of phosphorus, ammonia, anion measurement of ions, calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, zinc, potassium, elements of the measurement, the samples taken from taps EGSB reactor, TS and TVS as affecting the wastewater treatment of confectionery industry, executing a series of experimental studies, was done wastewater characterization. In this study, process and pollution profiles of confectionery industry were formed. Inert fractions were determined by establishing anaerobic reactor in the laboratory. 5.299.685 m3 water of per year are used at the facility. Confectionery industry profile is created for the investigated process and product specific processes, disposal of sewage per day the amount of wastewater is 92.100 m3/day and 3134 m3/ton product. Amount of wastewater formation are examined, the most important wastewater source is sugar-gum1-jelly line in the factory. A large part of this wastewater from production comes the other part of the administrative-social building, mess hall and the toilet. COD and SS of unit on the basis of pollutant loads, is calculated 26642; 2736 kg/ton in the factory. 112 tons products produced per day in the factory. Plant’s layout and production amounts are given in this study. Confectionery manufacturing industry categories determined in the Regulation on Water Pollution Control, introducing the production processes, produced products identified at the plant.The data obtained from the characterization study, compared with the literature. On the basis of the characterization study, process and pollution profiles created on the basis of the plant source. Sugar and related products is determined by the Water Pollution Control Regulations of TSS and COD pollution parameters. TSS concentration in the exit of the investigated confectionery industry wastewater treatment plant with an average of < 15 mg/L, COD concentration is < 40 mg/L, respectively, and these values meet the Water Pollution Control Regulations discharge limits. The facility for the period between May 2009 - April 2011 performance evaluation of existing treatment plant capacity of the plant were examined. At the facility in May 2009 - April 2011 period, the average COD and SS parameters and status of the pollution load discharged ISKI existing wastewater treatment plant provides a high performance, especially in terms of COD removal. Expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor volumetric organic load 4.5 kg COD/m3.day an deven values as high as 10 &#61566; 15 kg COD/m3.day high yields (80% - 90%), COD removal is possible. High - efficiency anaerobic reactor for stable and sustainable business, the maximum volumetric loading 10 kg COD/m3.day can be done safely. Wastewater treatment plant is a very high removal efficiency can be increased capacity. Aerobic reactor, F/M ratio of 0.33 kg even in shock load BOD5/kg SS.day. F/M ratio for conventional activated sludge up to a value of 0.6 kg BOD5/kg VSS.day. Aeration basins are below this value for the moment and where necessary enhanced by the installation has been observed. In this study, we investigated confectionery industry and the very high treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant discharge limits based on Water Pollution Control Regulations under the operation of the facility to obtain the values shows that there is a problem. Aerobic and anaerobic sludge age reactor, the reactor was also very low volumetric organic load of the facility shows that have the capacity to handle more load. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans tr_TR
dc.description.degree M.Sc. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/8891
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.publisher Institute of Science and Technology en_US
dc.rights İTÜ tezleri telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights İTÜ theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject şekerleme üretimi tr_TR
dc.subject şekerleme atıksuyu tr_TR
dc.subject inert KOİ tr_TR
dc.subject EGSB reaktörü tr_TR
dc.subject deneysel karakterizasyon tr_TR
dc.subject confectionery production en_US
dc.subject confectionery wastewater en_US
dc.subject inert COD en_US
dc.subject EGSB reactor en_US
dc.subject experimental characterization en_US
dc.title Şekerleme Endüstrisinde Proses Ve Kirlenme Profili İle Arıtılabilirlik Bazlı Deneysel Karakterizasyon tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Process And Pollution Profile With Treatability Based Experimental Characterization Of Confectionery Industry en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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