Tasarım eğitiminde akıl yürütmeyi tartışmak: Sayısal araçlarla bir tasarım alıştırması denemesi

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Tarih
2012-01-26
Yazarlar
Kurugül, Sibel
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Teknolojik gelişmelerin etkisiyle bugün mimari tasarım ve tasarım eğitimi farklılaşarak yeniden şekillenmeye başlamıştır. Sayısal araçlar tasarım alanına derinleşerek nüfus etmekte ve sayısal araçlarla tasarımın bütünleşik olduğu bir tasarım geleceğini öngören teoriler giderek daha fazla önem kazanmaktadır. Bu bağlamda sayısal araçlarla bütünleşik bir tasarım eğitiminin önemi de ortaya çıkmış ve farklı yaklaşımlarla uygulamalar oluşmaya başlamıştır. Tez kapsamında bu alana eğilerek sayısal tasarımla bütünleşik bir tasarım stüdyosuna giriş niteliği taşıyan ve test edilerek sonuçları gözlemlenebilecek bir alıştırma kurgulanmak istenmiştir.Tezde vurgulanan bir diğer ana konu ise tasarımın bilinçli bir tutumla yapıldığıdır. Tasarımın belli bağlamdaki bir sorunu çözmeye yönelik değerlendirmelerin yapılıp kararların alındığı bir üretme biçimi olduğuna dikkat çekilmiş, tasarımda akıl yürütmenin (nedensellik) önemi ortaya konmuştur. Tasarımda akıl yürütme yaklaşımı tasarım eğitimi için odak olarak belirlenmiş, tasarım eğitiminde öncelikle nasıl akıl yürütüldüğünü sorgulamaya ve geliştirmeye yönelik alıştırmaların gerekliliği açıklanmıştır. Bu bağlamda hem akıl yürütmeyi ön plana çıkaran hem de sayısal araçlarla bütünleşen bir alıştırma oluşturulmak istenmiştir. Sayısal araçlarla bütünleşik akıl yürütmeye odaklı bir tasarım modelini oluşturmak için işlemsel tasarım bağlayıcı olmuştur. İşlemsel tasarım hem tasarımda nasıl akıl yürütüldüğünü sorgulamak için iyi bir araç, hem de sayısal araçlarda farklı anlamlar ve özellikler kazanabilen kapsayıcı bir kavramdır. Bu bağlamda işlemsel tasarımı iyi açıklayan görsel kurallardan faydalanılmış, kuralların farklı ortam ve araçlarda farklı işlenebilirliğiyle de sayısal araçlar ve tasarımda akıl yürütme bütünleştirilebilmiştir.Arkaplanını yukarıda söz edilen kavramların oluşturduğui test edilebilir bir alıştırma kurgulanmış ve tasarım eğitimine yeni başlayan öğrenci modelini oluşturan onsekiz katılımcı ile deneyimlenmiştir. Alıştırma bir sessiz oyun niteliğinde olup maket, sketchup ve grasshopperda ayrı ayrı işlenmiştir. Alıştırmanın deneyimlenmesiyle katılımcıların tasarımda akıl yürütmeyi sorgulamak için işlemsel tasarımdan -kurallardan- faydalanıp faydalanamadıkları, farklı araçlardan bu süreçte ne şekilde yararlandıkları gözlenmiştir.Sonuçlar kuralların tasarım sürecini ilerletmek için katılımcıla tarafından farkedilip kullanılabildiği yönündedir. Farklı araçlarda kuralların farklı şekilde işlenmesi ise alıştırmanın araçların özellikleriyle bütünleşmesi açısından olumlu olmuş; aynı kurallar farklı ortamlarda katılımcılar tarafından farklı değerlendirilebilmiştir. Ancak maket, sketchup ve grasshopper kıyaslandığında ileri analitik bilgi ve analitik düşünce yetisi gerektiren grasshopper katılımcılar için zorlayıcı olmuştur. Grasshopper için düşünülebilecek farklı alıştırmalar ilgi çekici olabilir.
Today, architectural design and the education of architecture has started to be reshaped by the effects of the technological developments environment. The computational medium and its different tools interpenetrate in the design medium thus the computational medium and designer cooperated design future theories are becoming more important everyday. In this context, the place of computational tools in design education became an lately comman question that different aproaches has occured to respond this question. The main task served in this thesis is to examine the literature about this new aproaches to find a way to introduce the new digital media to design students in early design education. In this sense an exercise which can be a basic and early component of that kind of digital design sudio, and also can be tested practically with participants, is created and experimented.An other highlighted main subject about the design is design thought which is an aproach about design understanding and explaining design as a coscious matter. Designing is a sort of producting that the person who designs thinks about a certain concept by considering, analysing, seeing options and making selection thus design is a reosining process. Design needs the designers think about the main problem in an organized way. The designer is expected to make other people understand his process by using presantative tools. This idea called the transparant design aproach. The idea is directly related to the design reasoning which encourages designer to think in an systematic way which he can know what to do, how to do and also the way let him explain people what he is doing.Design reosining is specified as the main focus of design education. It is considered more important to learn and develop how to find reasons in design rather than how to draw a building in architecture education. The basic design exercises to discover how to reason design thinking are specially sicnificant in early terms of design education. Some abstract exercises are usefull to think about design reasoning and developing the design reosining skills. In consequence of the idea, the exircise established as the product of the thesis is focused on design reosining while aiming to find an enterence about the computational tools.Moreover abstract design exercises also help to fictionalise a learner-centered learning system. It is valuable to let design student to find his own way of design thinking and his own way to use and combine different materials and different design tools. In this direction the foundations design studio is regarded as an experimental, learner-centered, productive and open medium which students are encouraged to discover about the design reasoning and talk about their processes. Talking is also an other foundation of design studio. Asking students to review andxviitalk about ther works makes them think, analyse and consideration about design. Making students talking about their process also makes creativity something that can be developed by effort and shows the improvements of the student in a formal field.As the study being done in this thesis is to find a way of usega for digital tools in a design-oriented aproach. The computational design becomes a connective term for design thought and digital tools to show and emphasise the digital tools as a new thinking environment. Computational design theorem is a good assistant to examine design reasoning and also has a technical meaning about the digital process of information in digital modeling. With this idea the exercise planned by using both meanings of computation in design thought and digital tools. An exercise is planned which trains design reasoning by design computing practically and also let students use different computation properties of digital tools while they are improving their ideas. And it is tested to see the interaction of practical computation and digital tools for early design students in design process.To fictionalise the exersise as a computational work visual schemas are used. To carry out the computation in both design tought and digital tools senses some rules are excellent advisors. Firstly, rules are good helpers to provide little hints to what to do when the desgner can not estimate the next step to improve design thus an excellent tool to think and talk about design reasoning. Secondly, a visual rule can be defined differently bu using different tools while shaping it and can occure different results for different people thus it can be perceived according to the user who improves design process. The rules can be flexible and formal tools to improve design if they are not told directly and certainly to the students. Herewith the exercise is structured by visual rules whic are not told to the participants directly but known from the teacher and being showed in silence.The exercise is built as a silent game which is a pedagogic learner centered and hands-on learner-centered teaching method. A game with two players planned as first player is the teacher and the second player is the participant. The teacher started the game process for ten minutes and the participants played for an other ten - fifteen minutes. In teachers process it is presented the visual rules in silence by doing directly on a basic geometric form. After teachers process, the geometric composition passed to the participant and it is expected him to try to use some hints from teachers process to finish the composition.An introduction paper is given to the participants before the experimet of the exercise which is asking the participants to watch the teacher's process at first and then to continue the composition in the same style and finish the abstract geometric desig. The visual schemas are not written directly in the introduction paper but used embedded in the teacher process. Visual schemas are used to make the moves in silent game's concept and are not told to the participants as certain rules to obey. In this way a computational design exercise is created to compute design and to shape the toughts by using different design tools.For the thesis study it is important to see the effects of different model shaping tools specially the digital medium ones. In this context physical modelling, sketchup modelling and grasshopper modelling are selected to train the exercise. Sketchupxviiiand grasshopper are significant as computer programmes specially improved for architectural design skills and they have different logic to compute that they need different logical aproach to use. While the same visual schemas are shaped on the model, the process goes differently for each design tool so it occures different moves on the same rule and different perceptions on participants's eyes. It embeds rules and computation in design tools therefore it is possible to find a connection between designer's reosining mechanism and tools.An exercise which trains design reasoning and digital medium usage is composed and experimented with eighteen participants. The participants are selected who does not have a design education or does not know architectural design computer programmes to watch the interaction of it with new design students model. With the experiment of the exercise by participants it is wanted to see if the participants are able to get computational design as a way to find design reasons and able to understand the visual schemas according to their own impressions or not. And also it is important to see if different design mediums and tools are effectual on design thought direcktly or how much role they have on the design while the designer shapeing out his ideas.The imprints show that visual schemas are possible to use as a tool to improve design reasoning and some participants have used them effectively. Participants are able to see some systematic moves in the teachers process and able to use them for their design. While they have not been told there will be some rules which they will have to obey later, they became able to analyse however they wish the moves they watched from teacher's process. And some of them used that analyses to make decisions to improve their designs later.One of the ideas considered highly important is to compute the design in different tools to expose the relation between computational design aproach and digital design. In the experiment of exercise it is seen that different design tools are significantly changing the sensation of visual schemas while giving schemas shape in model. Physical model and sketchup are usually supplementary for each other that participants are able to understand about rules by thinking about both of them together. While physical model and sketchup has smilar processes like being done by itself without thinking deeply grasshopper is different as it needs a high technical ability and analitic thinking. It is clearly seen that participants are face to a difficult problem in grasshopper which they can not improve their process as productive as physical model and sketchup exercises. It maybe valuable to work on some special exercises about advanced programmes like grasshopper to introduce them to students with design-oriented aproach in design studios.
Açıklama
Anahtar kelimeler
Mimarlık, Architecture
Alıntı