Mimarlık eğitiminde maketin etkin kullanımı için etkileşimli artırılmış gerçekliğin irdelenmesi

dc.contributor.advisor Şener, Sinan Mert tr_TR
dc.contributor.author Özenen, Gürkan tr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID 444237 tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Mimari Tasarımda Bilişim tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Informatics in Architectural Design en_US
dc.date 2016 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2018-12-05T12:39:47Z
dc.date.available 2018-12-05T12:39:47Z
dc.date.issued 2016 tr_TR
dc.description Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2016 tr_TR
dc.description Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2016 en_US
dc.description.abstract Mimari düşüncenin anlaşılması için etkin bir yol olan maketler, mimari tasarım stüdyosunda kullanılan teknoloji, araç ve malzemelere göre farklı şekillerde üretilebilmektedir. Günümüzde bilgisayar destekli modeller, sanal ve artırılmış gerçeklik teknikleri ise eğitimin her aşamasında etkin bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Son yıllarda, mimarlık eğitiminde maket kullanımının, artırılmış gerçeklik ortamında daha etkin hale getirilmesi konusunda çalışmalar yapılmaktadır. Bu nedenle, mimari tasarım stüdyosundaki öğrencilerin ürettikleri projelerin üç boyutlu maketlerini, artırılmış gerçeklik kullanarak oluşturmaları ve sonrasında bu sistemin avantaj ile dezavantajlarının değerlendirilmesi bu tezin amacını oluşturmuştur. Mimarlık eğitiminde proje geliştirme süreci ile maket yapımını paralel yürütmenin zorluğu nedeniyle öğrenciler tarafından makete gereken önemin verilmediği düşünülmektedir. Tam tersi olduğu durumlarda ise maket üretim süreci, tasarım sürecinin önüne geçebilmekte ve bazı durumlarda maket altlığın hazırlanması da tasarım süresini etkileyebilmektedir. Mimari tasarıma ağırlık verilen proje sürecinde, maket yapımının, tasarıma yetişmesi için maket üretim maliyetini artırarak bilgisayar destekli üretim, hazır modeller veya üç boyutlu baskı imkanlarından yararlanılmaktadır. Projede yapılacak herhangi bir revizyonun makete yansıtılması ise sürenin ve maliyetin daha da artmasına neden olmaktadır. Maliyetten ödün verilen çalışmalarda ise istenilen kalite yakalanamadığı için mimari proje maketinin kalitesi azalabilmektedir. Her şeyin yolunda gittiği projeler ve maketlerde ise maketin depolanması ve bir noktadan bir başka yere taşınmasında güçlükler sorunlar ortaya çıkabilmektedir. Artırılmış gerçeklik ortamında yaratılan ve bulut bilişim ile sonradan erişim sağlanan sanal maketlerin kullanımı, fiziki maketlerin yetersiz kaldığı noktalarda avantaj sağlayabilmektedir. Arşiv ve taşıma gibi engeli olmadığı için ise geçmişteki projelere bulut bilişim ile kolaylıkla erişim imkanı sağlanabilmektedir. Bu tez çalışmasında mimarlık eğitimi gören öğrencilere, mimari tasarım stüdyosunda üretilen geleneksel fiziki mimari maketlerin yapımından önce, artırılmış gerçeklik ortamında sanal maketler yapmaları önerilmiştir. Fiziki maket yapımı ardından, maketin sayısal ortama aktarılma sürecinin uzun olması, yapılan değişikliklerin her aşaması maketin üzerine yansıtılamayabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, mimari tasarım stüdyosunda proje üreten öğrencilerin ürettikleri projelerin üç boyutlu maketlerini, artırılmış gerçeklik kullanarak oluşturmaları sonrasında öğrenciler tarafından yapılan başlangıç ve bitim anketleri ile bu sistemin avantaj ve dezavantajları değerlendirilmiştir. Tez kapsamında üç farklı çalıştay gerçekleştirilmiş olup, çalıştay katılımcılarının artırılmış gerçeklik ortamını deneyimlemeleri sağlanmıştır. Çalıştayların başında ve sonunda, katılan katılımcılara yöneltilen ilk ve son anket sorularından alınan cevaplar kaydedilmiştir. Sonuçlar değerlendirildiğinde artırılmış gerçeklik ile yapılan maketlerin sonrasında nihai fiziksel maketler yapıldığında zaman ve emek kaybının azalacağı bu tez sonucunda vurgulanmaktadır. Sonuç olarak, artırılmış gerçekliğin bir çok eğitim alanında kullanılmaya başlandığı göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, mimarlık eğitimi alanında etkin olarak kullanılabileceğinin gerekliliği vurgulanmaktadır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract The equipment, materials and technology used to design pyhsical models in architectural design studio may differ since architectural models are the easiest way of emphasizing the design concept. Nowadays, computer aided design models, virtual and augmented reality techniques have been interactively used in every field of education. Recently, some studies have been published to use augmented reality environment efficiently for model-making in architectural education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use augmented reality environment in the architectural design studio for designing three-dimensional models of the design project and also to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using this system. The model-making in architectural education is essential although it is considered that the importance has not been emphasized enough by the students since the design and model-making processes couldn't always kept concurrent. Moreover, the model-making sometimes take more time then designing so that the designer could not take enough time to design the project. The project developers outsource the architectural model-making process or save time with using industrial machines like computer aided manutfacturing or 3D printing to accelerate and synchronize the model-making and achitectural design process. Any revisions performed during the architectural design process may cause an increase of the expected budget and time. Lowering the budget may provoke insufficient quality of the architectural model. Transporting and storing of the architectural models without any physical damage would be another problem after overcoming these issues. Although architectural models are the best way of emphasizing the architectural plans, it is not easy and efficient to teach and use physical model-making in architectural education. Nevertheless computer aided design, virtual and augmented reality technologies are used in most fields of education nowadays. Model- making for architecture refers to both physical and digital model making unless a clear distinction is performed within the context of this study. The introduction of digital media like Augmented Reality (AR) changes the nature of the conversation. This research based on the role of digital three-dimensional architectural models and animated representations in the design conversation. This paper presents experiences with students in the use of Augmented Reality (AR) technologies versus manually made physical models in design tasks. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine an effective way of model- making for architectural education by using AR. The virtual models designed in augmented reality environment and accessed with cloud storage may have some advantages on avoiding these negatory situations of architectural physical models. Limitless changes performed on the architectural designs may be adapted concurrently to the augmented reality models. Archiving and transfering the design to cloud storage will provide access for tracking the changes of the history. It was offered to use virtual architectural models prior to perform conventional physical models for the students studying in the architectural design studio within this study. The time consuming transfer process of the physical models to the digital platform may not always reflect all the changes performed during the model-making stages. In the present study, the advantages and disadvantages of augmented reality use for model-making have been determined by the students studying in the achitectural design studio with using initial and final questionnaires. Three different workshops were performed where all the attendants were able to accomplish their design in augmented reality environment. The answers of questionnaires fulfilled at the beginning and at the end of the workshops were recorded. The evaluation of the results revealed that physical model-making after using virtual augmented reality models provides the sustainability and efficiency. The survey design was focused on the measurement of the efficiency, effectiveness of the workshop and the fulfillment degree with the attendants' preferences. In the evaluating progress the knowledge of the emerging computer aided software and hardware, the use of cloud technologies, and use of Augmented Reality were considered to improve the use of digital models during the architectural design phase. A digital modelling workshop was set-up to develop this research as an open course for, bachelor, masters and PhD architecture students, at Istanbul Technical University. A profile was designed to select the attendants of this study and the inclusion criteria were having basic 3D software knowledge. No exclusion criteria were determined at this time. The attendants were all chosen from academically environment with architectural background. They were all volunteers and instructed about the contents before the study. Mostly students and academics were participated to the workshop and survey via online and social network announcements. Before the workshop, it was asked to have basic knowledge of CAD software experience. By this way, the attendants were able to bind with in a specific type of users to focus on the desired topics. The age range was also being considered because of the effect on evaluation. This was a two-step studio workshop. The first step was asking the attendants to fill out a survey. The second step was designing the model using AR technology. The attendants were asked to answer the level of their 3D design knowledge, whether they had made physical architectural models, the time they had spent on physical architectural models etc. After the first survey, a brief introduction was given about the tasks in the following workshop. Then, the use and the specifications of Augmented Reality plug-in AR-mediaTM were tutored. The attendants were free to use by choosing the suited 3D modelling tool for them. Mostly preferred 3D modelling tools were Autodesk 3ds Max® and Trimble SketchUpTM. In the beginning of the workshop, a conceptual design of a building was asked to design directly in 3D medium. The task was to design the model within a pre-modelled, sloped terrain with an environmental data of trees, houses, landscape and view, which was provided before the design stage. Furthermore, an appendix was designed. The design process was limited with a specific time and the basic architectural programming. Attendants were inspired of learning by real time and modelling directly in 3D. After the design process 3D models were prepared for the augmented reality display. Some attendants had more than one proposal so they registered each proposal in different layers. Some of them had animated the sequence of the design process. All these possibilities were exported to the augmented media. The augmented media designed by the participants were simultaneously uploaded to a cloud storage client. This opportunity was used to storage all files performed during the workshop, and turned into a cloud workspace to share with colleagues, exchange documents, track changes and assign some tasks. Cloud storage helps accessing, sharing and collaborating on files anywhere through mobile applications. Exchanging feedback and saving these files may be submitted as some advantages of the system. There is also opportunity for offline access. WrapTM 920AR augmented reality eyewear and personal smart handheld devices were used during the workshop for viewing the augmented reality objects. The survey data were analyzed by calculating the frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that all the students were determined to agree that AR designed models gave highly detailed digital projects then the physical models. The ability of exhibiting an interactive project was found to be more affective then physical model making. The attendants of the present study also claimed that it was clearer to see the overall design with AR software. In architectural education the models that have been designed by the students are considered as very important in their portfolios. Thus, providing a digital portfolio as having visualization of the 3D models is a reputation and may be defined as top-line for the architectural education. Considering the results of the present study it is concluded that the experience using AR technology has contributed new educational values that have a direct impact on model-making for architectural design courses. Students and educators are required to develop their knowledge as well as their utilization of the advancing technology. Regarding these reflections, architectural academic staff might take more challenging tasks and consolidated designs as technology develops. en_US
dc.description.degree Doktora tr_TR
dc.description.degree Ph.D. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16824
dc.language tur tr_TR
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.publisher Institute of Science and Technology en_US
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Bilgisayar Mühendisliği Bilimleri-Bilgisayar ve Kontrol tr_TR
dc.subject Mimarlık tr_TR
dc.subject Artırılmış gerçeklik tr_TR
dc.subject Etkileşimli mimari tr_TR
dc.subject Mimarlık eğitimi tr_TR
dc.subject Sanal eğitim tr_TR
dc.subject Sanal mimari tr_TR
dc.subject Computer Engineering and Computer Science and Control en_US
dc.subject Architecture en_US
dc.subject Augmented reality en_US
dc.subject Interactive architecture en_US
dc.subject Architectural education en_US
dc.subject Virtual education en_US
dc.subject Virtual architecture en_US
dc.title Mimarlık eğitiminde maketin etkin kullanımı için etkileşimli artırılmış gerçekliğin irdelenmesi tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Assessing the usability of interactive augmented reality for efficient use of models in architectural education en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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