Köprüüstü emniyet destek sisteminin geliştirilmesi: Tanker gemilerine uygulanması 

dc.contributor.advisor Kum, Serdar tr_TR
dc.contributor.author Altun, Murat Hasan Ali tr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID 10252058 tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Deniz Ulaştırma Mühendisliği tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Maritime Transportation and Mangement Engineering en_US
dc.date 2019 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2020-09-21T11:21:18Z
dc.date.available 2020-09-21T11:21:18Z
dc.date.issued 2019 tr_TR
dc.description Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2019 tr_TR
dc.description Theses (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2019 en_US
dc.description.abstract Dünya üzerinde hergün gemilere yüzlerce denetleme yapılmakta ve binlerce uygunsuz durum saptanmaktadır. Fakat bu uygunsuz durumların ne derece önemli olduğu, bunların ne kadarının istatistiki verilerinin bulunduğu ve gemilerin birbiriyle karşılaştırıldığında ne durumda oldukları gibi önemli sorular günümüze kadar çok iyi cevaplandırılamamıştır. Bu tez sayesinde yukarıda bahsedilen sorunların giderilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Tez çalışması esnasında, öncelikle köprüüstü sistemleri; navigasyon/seyir sistemleri, haberleşme sistemleri, makine kontrol sistemleri ve diğer kontrol sistemleri olmak üzere dört ana başlık altında incelenmiştir. Bütün bu sistemlerin nasıl çalıştığı ve hangi sistemlerle bağlantılı olabileceği üzerinde durulmuş ve herhangi bir arıza durumunda ne tür risklerle karşılaşılabileceği ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca, köprüüstü operasyonları incelenerek söz konusu operasyonlar esnasında meydana gelebilecek ağır hava koşulları, manevra alanının ve görüşün kısıtlanması gibi durumlar karşısında seyir, yanaşma ve kalkış/ayrılma ile demirleme operasyonlarının nasıl devam ettirilebileceği konusunda bilgilendirmeler yapılmıştır. Köprüüstünde mevcut riskler; donanımsal, operasyonel riskler ve üçüncü partilere dayalı riskler olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu riskler sonucunda oluşabilecek potansiyel sonuçlar üzerinde durulmuş ve emniyetsiz durumların kök neden analizleri yapılmıştır. Ayrıca, köprüüstü denetlemelerinde saptanan bulgular incelenmiş, bu bulgular kategorize edilmiştir. Çalışmalar esnasında birçok gemiadamı ile yapılan anket sonuçlarına göre Köprüüstü Emniyet Destek Sistemi (KEDS) kriterleri Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi (AHP) ile ağırlıklandırılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler Super Decisions programına girilerek tüm sonuçların sağlaması yapılmıştır. Bir sonraki aşamada Gemi Kalite Puanı ve Gemi Performans Puanı hesaplanarak anket sonuçlarına göre elde edilen ağırlıklandırmalara göre Köprüüstü Emniyet Destek Sistemi (KEDS) geliştirilmiştir. En son aşamada ise KEDS senaryoları üretilerek en kötü ve en iyi KEDS puanları saptanmış ve sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir. Bu tez çalışması esnasında, bilimsel yöntemlerle gemilerin ve işletmeci şirketlerin tüm bileşenleri değerlendirilerek emniyet eksikliklerinin saptanması ve doğru gemi seçiminin sağlanması ile daha emniyetli, daha duyarlı ve daha âdil (sürdürülebilir) denizcilik piyasa ortamlarının oluşturulması amaçlanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Hundreds of inspections are being carried out on vessels every day and thousands of deficiencies are being reported. However, some questions couldn't be answered until now such as; which deficiencies are more important, how much statistical data available and how better is a ship when compared to others. It is aimed to get rid of these issues with the help of this thesis. Vetting companies are inspecting tankers for major oil companies to ensure their minimum standards. In addition, port states, flag states, and classification companies are inspecting ships in accordance with their inspection schedules or randomly. All these inspection requirements are forcing shipowners to perform so many inspections in restricted time periods. This situation is causing extra stress and workload for everyone almost at every port. Also, inspectors who are assigned to perform such inspections usually aren't able to find out the real condition status of the ship because of the limited port stay period. As a result of all thesis studies, a safety support system has been developed to overcome these issues. During Bridge Safety Support System (KEDS) development studies; bridge systems were examined to understand the importance of navigational and auxiliary equipment. Bridge systems were divided into four chapters: navigation systems, communication systems, engine control systems, and other control systems. It was investigated how these systems are working, the connection with other systems and which risks might come up in case of a failure. The deficiencies which were found on the bridge and all related chapters were researched in literature. According to statistics, it was understood that the second most frequent deficiency chapter is navigation safety. If all ship operations are considered in general, it is obvious that the safety of a ship starts with navigation safety. Hence, this is showing the importance and necessity of the thesis. Bridge operations were investigated and explained how to continue these operations in case of bad weather conditions, during the passage through a restricted maneuver areas, and restricted visibility. Bridge operations were investigated under three chapters; navigation, berthing/unberthing and anchoring. The bridge risks are examined as; hardware risks, operational risks, and third-party risks. Hardware risks are based on an equipment failure such as Radar, GPS, and ECDIS. Operational risks are the risks which are arising from the lack of improper procedure exercise such as lack of testing, faults on chart readings, not using required publications, berthing/unberthing operation risks, and bad weather condition risks. Third party risks are the risks which are not the result of nor vessel crew neither the management company such as pilot, terminal and shipyard faults. The potential results were identified as a result of these risks and carried out unsafe conditions root cause analysis. As per statistics, 60 % of the root causes of ship collisions and groundings are directly related to human errors. However, the most frequent human errors are; fatigue, communication deficiencies, and lack of technical knowledge. Factors affecting human errors are identified as environmental, technological and organizational errors. The root causes for unsafe conditions are classified in six titles; lack of familiarization and education, lack of knowledge and talent, lack of equipment, lack of monitoring, management company fault, and third-party faults. The deficiencies were researched and categorized, which are found during the bridge inspections. The categories for deficiencies are described as; crew fault, device failure, ISM deficiency, lack of equipment, structural deficiency, and management company faults. During the studies, several surveys were carried out with captains, chief mates, deck officers, and superintendents. Minimum of three years tanker sea service experience criteria was sought from the experts who attended the survey. Survey results were checked for consistency inspection. The surveys which are inconsistent were not included in any study. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determine leading factors for KEDS. Pairwise comparison studies were carried out for captains, chief mates, officers, and superintendents. Then, the arithmetic means of all pairwise comparisons were calculated and AHP were carried out for final results. All data were put in the Super Decisions program and accuracies of all results were verified in this way. As the next step, studies were carried out to develop KEDS. KEDS is depending on two major scores which are "Ship Quality Score" and "Ship Performance Score". Both scores are a combination of several components. Ship Quality Score is based on five major components; Crew Quality, Equipment Condition and Quality, Management Company Quality, Structural Condition, and ISM Status. Crew Quality Score is calculated as an advanced mode of a crew matrix. Specifications of all officers, engineers, and captain are obtained and calculated as per survey results weights. The second component for Ship Quality Score is equipment condition and quality which is divided into six chapters; navigation systems, communication systems, bridge engine control systems, emergency systems, illumination systems, and deck related systems. All equipment should be checked during the bridge inspection and should be identified as working, partially working, not working or back up available. Equipment score is obtained by applying the weight coefficient. Management company quality score is one of the major components which forms the Ship Quality Score. It is generated by six factors; number of vessels per superintendent, fleet performance score, number of detained vessels, number of vessel accidents, number of crew injury, and ITF inspection deficiency. Another component for Ship Quality Score is the structural condition. Structural condition score consists of ship age, hull type, ship speed, pumping capacity, time for drydock, and fuel consumption. The last component for Ship Quality Score is ISM status. ISM status score is affecting both Ship Quality Score and Ship Performance Score. The bridge should be inspected for ISM status by five main titles. These titles are; bridge orders, procedures and posters, records and checklists, periodic maintenance, tests and checks, bridge operations, charts and publications and lastly devices & equipment. Ship Performance Score is based on two major components; ISM status and deficiency affect. ISM status score which was calculated by the weight coefficient is the first factor for Ship Performance Score. The effects of deficiencies which were identified during the bridge ISM inspection are analyzed in five categories. These categories are; damage probability, possible damage size, same deficiency frequency, deficiency importance coefficient, root cause coefficient, and deficiency correction duration. Ship Quality Score and Ship Performance Score are weighted by coefficiencies which were obtained from surveys. Finally, BSSS score is calculated by above Ship Quality and Performance Scores. Two scenarios were carried out to ensure the proper working of BSSS calculations. These scenarios were based on the worst condition and the best condition technically. It was understood that all calculations are providing quantitative outputs for several ways of the ship status which are currently inspected. The aim of this thesis is to find out safety deficiencies with the help of inspecting all components of vessels and management companies by scientific methods and providing the best and right vessel selection to create safer, fair and liable maritime markets. en_US
dc.description.degree Doktora tr_TR
dc.description.degree Ph.D. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/18496
dc.language.iso tur tr_TR
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.publisher Institute of Science and Technology en_US
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Emniyet tedbirleri tr_TR
dc.subject Risk tr_TR
dc.subject Risk analizi tr_TR
dc.subject Yük gemileri tr_TR
dc.subject Safety measures en_US
dc.subject Risk en_US
dc.subject Risk analysis en_US
dc.subject Cargo vessels en_US
dc.title Köprüüstü emniyet destek sisteminin geliştirilmesi: Tanker gemilerine uygulanması  tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Bridge safety support system development: Application to tanker ships en_US
dc.type Theses en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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