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|Title:||Kat Döşemeleri Kompozit, B3 Süreksizliğine Sahip, Karma Yüksek Yapının Deprem Etkisinde Tasarımı|
|Other Titles:||Under Of Earthquake Effect, Design Of Composite High Building That’s Story Floors Are Composite, Has B3 Discontinuity|
Depreme dayanıklı yapı tasarımı
Çok katlı yapılar
Taşıyıcı sistem çeşitleri
İstanbul yüksek binalar deprem yönetmeliği-2008
Keywords: High Structures
Earthquake Resistant Design
Structural System Types
Turkish Earthquake Code-2007
Istanbul High-Rise Buildings Earthquake Code-2008
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Bu tez kapsamında, çok katlı yüksek yapıların deprem etkisi karşısında davranışını incelemek üzere, betonarme çekirdek perde ile kolon ve kirişleri çelik, döşemesi kompozit olan taşıyıcı sisteme sahip 41 Katlı karma bir yapının yönetmelik ışığında, doğrusal analizi yapılmıştır. Birinci bölümde ülkemizdeki deprem tehlikesi vurgulanarak, yapıların depreme dayanıklı tasarımı için gerekli olan koşulları içeren yönetmelikler tanıtılmış ve tezin vurguladığı amaç açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde çok katlı yüksek yapıların açıklaması yapılarak, çeşitli kaynaklar arasındaki yüksek yapı tanım farkı dile getirilmiştir. Yüksek yapıların tarihsel gelişimi anlatılarak, dünyadan ve Türkiye’ den yüksek yapı örnekleri verilmiştir. Kullanılan yapı malzemesine göre yüksek yapı çeşitleri betonarme, çelik ve kompozit yüksek yapılar olarak sınıflandırılmış ve açıklanmıştır. Yüksek yapılarda kullanılan taşıyıcı sistemler; çerçeve sistem, perde duvarlı sistem, çerçeve ve perde duvarlı sistem, çekirdek sistem ve tüp sistem olmak üzere açıklanmış ve detayları verilmiştir. Taşıyıcı sistem seçiminde dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlarda irdelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde yüksek yapılara etkiyen statik ve dinamik yükler (düşey yükler, konstruksiyon yükleri, kar ve buz yükleri, rüzgar yükleri, sismik yükler, su ve toprak basıncı yükleri, çarpma ve dinamik yükler, patlama yükleri) sıralanmıştır. Bu yüklerin yapılarda meydana getirdiği etki ve deformasyonlar açıklanmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde TDY-2007’ de yer alan doğrusal elastik hesap yöntemleri hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Eşdeğer deprem yükü yöntemi, mod birleştirme yöntemi ve zaman tanım alanında hesap yöntemiyle ilgili uygulama koşulları, yapının birinci doğal titreşim periyodunun belirlenmesi gibi başlıklar irdelenmiştir. Ayrıca yönetmeliğe göre, yapıların deprem davranışının belirlenmesinde kontrol edilmesi gereken göreli kat ötelemeleri, ikinci mertebe etkileri, deprem derzleri ile ilgili hesap adımları konusu da bu bölümde incelenmiştir. Yapıların performans değerlendirilmesinde uygulanacak hesap kuralları, binalardan bilgi toplanması, bilgi düzeyleri, yapı elemanlarında hasar sınırları ve hasar bölgeleri, bina deprem performansının belirlenmesi gibi başlıklar altında incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde İstanbul Yüksek Yapılar Deprem Yönetmeliği-2008 yılı son taslağı irdelenmiştir. Yönetmeliğin amaç ve kapsamı, deprem tasarım spektrumları, yüksek binalar için performans düzeyleri ve hedefleri ile tasarım aşamaları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Altıncı bölümde daha önceki bölümlerde verilen bilgiler ışığında örnek bir uygulama olması açısından kat döşemeleri kompozit, B3 süreksizliğine sahip, karma yüksek yapının deprem etkisinde tasarımı yapılmıştır. Öncelikle yapının taşıyıcı sistem, malzeme, yük ve yük kombinasyon bilgileri verilmiştir. Yapının kolon, kiriş, güçlü kolon-zayıf kiriş, kompozit döşeme gibi kesit hesapları TDY-2007’ ye göre mod birleştirme yöntemiyle yapılmıştır. Düzensizlik kontrollerinde ise İYBDY-2008 taslağına göre zaman tanım alanında doğrusal analizi yapılan yapıdan elde edilen sonuçlar ile TDY-2007 sonuçları karşılaştırılmış ve grafiksel değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Betonarme perdelerin, birleşim bölgelerinin ve radyetemelin hesapları da yapılarak binanın deprem dayanımı belirlenmiştir. Yedinci bölümde hem tez konusu örnek yapının hem de genel anlamda yüksek yapıların deprem etkisi altındaki davranışlarının değerlendirilmesi yapılarak sonuçları açıklanmıştır.|
In this thesis, to examine the effect of earthquake behavior in the face of multi-storey buildings, in the light of seismic code, linear analysis was made of a 41 storey mixed structure that has reinforced concrete core curtain, steel columns and beams, also has composite flooring structural system. In the first chapter, the threat of earthquakes in Turkey was discussed, seismic codes that is including the requirements for earthquake-resistant design were introduced and explained the purpose of the thesis emphasized. Since 1940’ s years, the earthquake codes was opened discussion after large earthquakes and new codes came into force. In this regard, August 17, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake is considered a turning point for our country as a structuring perspective. After the great earthquake, ABYBHY-1998 began to be questioned shortcomings. After 8 years of the earthquake DBYBHY-2007 came into force. According to TDY-2007, for this study were used linear elastic analysis methods. 41-storey composite building static and dynamic loads and the corresponding regulation evaluation of eligibility criteria were sizing. Earthquake resistant design criteria necessary for the analysis was carried out with reference to the structure. The expected performance of the system, the goal is to provide safety in severe earthquakes. In addition to the thesis structure, in addition to the multi-storey building comparisons. Linear time history analysis made of composite multi-storey structure according to Istanbul High Rise Buildings Codes directive to the solution results to be obtained from the appropriate earthquake records, TDY-2007 compared with the results of analysis. Description of multi-storey buildings were made in the second part, the difference in definition of high rise building from a variety of sources have been expressed. The historical developments of high-rise buildings were explained and tallest buildings models were given in the world and Turkey. Types of construction materials used are classified and explained by the high rise building. Details of the kinds of structural systems used in high-rise buildings are being introduced. Nowadays, increasingly rapid population growth to the appreciation of the costs of land, the conveniences provided by technology, various corporate companies and wants to gain prestige races metropolitan areas such as architecture, rapid increase in high-rise buildings has led to many reasons. This unique delivery system with an increase in high buildings, equipment, safety and aesthetic concepts and solutions for open discussion were produced. Authorities before making inferences about the high buildings there was a need to make a definition about it. The concept of multi-storey structure is discussed in terms of definition so far. Number of floors of the building that is more considered as a high rise building. High-build definition in the world, first of all it depends on the type of building being constructed. The building was constructed in the region to have a markedly higher compared to the other structures of a building is considered to be a relatively high can cause it. Divided into three groups according to the material used in high-rise construction; reinforced concrete, steel and composite. High-rise buildings structural system, material, structure, height, number of floors vary according to function and structure. Horizontal and vertical forces acting on high rise buildings types of structural system for delivery of the system frame can be classified as curtain wall system, the frame and curtain wall systems, core system, the tube system. Static and dynamic loads acting on structures are listed in the third section. Impact and deformations in structures are described caused by that loads. There are mainly two sources of construction loads; nature and human beings. Geophysical forces are a result of the in nature changes. Gravity can be divided into meteorological and seismological forces. Self-weight of the whole structure of the building will remain constant throughout the life force of a weight. Operation of the loads on the structure in time creates the gravity loads. Changing the time and place of the meteorological wind loads, temperature loads occurring in the form of snow and ice. Seismological forces generated by earthquakes that occurred from time to time in areas with active seismicity. A high structure’s mass, format, and building material used in geophysical loads, affects the earthquake behavior. In the fourth chapter, the methods of the linear elastic analysis in TDY-2007, were provided information. Equivalent seismic load method, mode superposition method and time history analysis method were discussed such as application conditions and the determination of the structure of the first natural vibration period. Also according to the seismic code, accounting rules were determining the performance of buildings in earthquakes analyzed, in this section. Determining the capacity of the existing buildings and earthquake resistance of structural elements used to evaluate the details and sizes of elements, structural information on the geometry and material properties, buildings, projects and reports, observations and measurements made in the building, the building materials to be applied to instances of the experiments will be obtained. The level of information are classified as limited, medium and comprehensive. The level of information obtained will be used to calculate the capacity of the carrier element. There is limited information on projects at the level of the structural system of the building. Carrier system properties are determined by measurements made in the building. Central information system projects at the level of the carrier if the building is not available, limited information is measured by the level of more. If present limited level of information specified measurements made project information is verified. Level, the structural system of the building projects, comprehensive information available. Measurements are performed in order to verify an adequate level of project information. In the fifth chapter, the final draft of the Istanbul High Rise Buildings Earthquake Codes is examined in 2008. Purpose and scope of the regulation, the earthquake design spectra for the performance levels of high-rise buildings, and about the objectives with design stages were informed. Istanbul is a marked increase in the construction of high rise building. As a result, the high-rise buildings in the city, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality has issued Earthquake Codes of High-Rise Buildings. Have been major changes in the design of high-rise buildings. Many design office use traditional force-based design are implementing DBYBHY. However, very few structures in addition to the traditional design is evaluated based on performance-based İYBDY 2008. Argued that the idea of performance design of this regulation. Although they contain these two regulations, the requirements of the modern earthquake engineering, has some shortcomings. Performance-based methods that can help the designer in evaluating the behavior of the building in the earthquake. Regulation to be held within the boundaries of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, underground and completely surrounding the building basements with high horizontal curtains stifness environment, with the exception of the low height of at least 60 meters from ground level buildings. The Regulation is based on performance-based design. Earthquake damage that can arise in the movement of elements is determined numerically. This value is within the limits limit the damage as a result of whether the number of structural elements are checked. Damage to acceptable limits for the various earthquake levels, the structure is defined to be compatible with the specified performance targets. Provided for the calculation of the element at the level of earthquake damage, severe earthquakes occur in the general nonlinear deformations beyond the elastic limits of the linear approach to design according to the performance came against, according to the nonlinear analysis methods, and deformation is directly related to the design concept. Regulation, provided the damage is limited to the performance objectives, the design principle based on the traditional resistance to the use of linear analysis methods are allowed. In the sixth chapter is a sample application in the light of the information provided in the previous sections, mixed high structure that has composite floors, with a discontinuity in B3, was designed under the influence of an earthquake. Structure of the cross-section calculations were made according to TDY-2007, the mode superposition method is used. Irregularity control were compared İYBDY-2008 linear time history analysis results with TDY-2007 results and it were evaluated graphically. Sample building was designed steel, as well as reinforced concrete core pitch of the account. The ground floor of the building where safety tension 80kn / m² was due to the improvement of the ground. Surface 80cm wide, 30m deep bored piles were applied. Radial foundation of the building was designed to be 3.5 m in height. For the analysis of static and dynamic loads of the upper structure DBYBHY-2007 is based on the bottom. Structure has been analyzed by the method of the mode combination. Torsional irregularity structure structure for the prevention and limitation of storey drifts attempted to establish a symmetrical arrangement of the structural system. As a result, A3 and B3 type of construction except for irregularities in vertical or no irregularities. Steel columns and beams cross-section calculations, calculations are made of composite flooring. Sectional capabilities, strong column-weak beam strength is tested by checking the structure. Seven earthquakes recorded in the time domain is used for linear analysis. Max results obtained from them are given in the table. Mode superposition method of calculation method in the time domain were obtained from the comparison of the displacement values. In the seventh chapter, the sample structure of the thesis subject and as well as the common high buildings were evaluated of the behavior of under earthquake loading and the results were explained. As a result, the system according to the principles Turkish Earthquake Building Code-2007 can detect safe.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
|Appears in Collections:||Deprem Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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