Kobiler Ve Mikro İşletmelerde Demir Döküm Sanayi Sektör Analizi

Akın, Umut
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Dökümcülük, tarihin en eski sektörlerinden biridir. Döküm ile alakalı ilk bulgular M.Ö. 7500 lü yıllara dayanmaktadır. Geçmişte olduğu gibi günümüzde de döküm sektörü oldukça önemlidir. İhracat verilerine bakıldığında metalurji sektörü otomotiv sektöründen sonra 2. sırada yer almaktadır. Türkiye ekonomisi için büyük bir öneme sahip olan metalurji ve döküm sektörü hakkında ciddi araştırmalar yapılmış ve yapılmaktadır. Yapılan araştırmalar sayıca az, üretim olarak çok olan büyük sanayi kuruluşlarına yönelik olduğundan bu tez çalışmasında KOBİ’ler ve mikro işletmelerde demir döküm sanayi sektör analizi yapılmıştır. Sektör analizi, alanında uzman kişilerden yardım alınarak hazırlanan anket soruları vasıtasıyla firmalara tek tek gidilerek ve firma sahipleriyle görüşülerek yapılmıştır. Hazırlanan anket soruları iki bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölüm, genel bilgiler başlığı altında 25 sorudan oluşmaktadır. İkinci bölüm, teknik bilgiler başlığı altında 24 sorudan oluşmaktadır. Anket sonuçlarından elde edilen bilgiler, 30 başlığa ayrılmış ve elde edilen sonuçlar görsel olarak sunulmuştur. Sektör analizinin eksiksiz olarak yapılabilmesi için, sektörün önde gelen döküm dernekleriyle, TMMOB Metalurji Mühendisleri Odasıyla, KOSGEB in döküm sektörü ile ilgili birimleriyle, T.C. Ekonomi Bakanlığı’nda bulunan ilgili birimlerle, T.C. Kalkınma Bakanlığı’nda bulunan ilgili birimlerle ve T.C. Bilim, Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanlığı’nda bulunan ilgili birimlerle görüşülmüştür. Firma sahipleriyle yapılan anket çalışması vasıtasıyla sektörün durumu birebir olarak görülmüş ve hazırlanan bu tezde sunulmuştur. Hazırlanan bu tezde döküm firmalarının; çalışan profili, firma profili, pazar dağılımları ve yıllık kazançları, işveren sayıları ve eğitim durumları, firmalarda karar mercileri, firmalarda eğitim, firmaların sanal dünya ile ilişkileri, firmaların vergiler hakkındaki görüşleri, firmaların iş sağlığı ve güvenliğine bakışı, firmaların kurulu bulundukları şehirlerde faaliyet gösterme sebepleri, firmalarda üretimi yapılan dökme demir tipleri, firmaların döküm derneklerine ve sempozyumlara olan bakışları, firmalarda AR-GE ve patent faaliyetleri, firmalarda elektrik tüketimi ve tasarruf tedbirleri, firmaların ürün ürettikleri sektörler, firmaların takip ettikleri döküm dergileri ve birçok konu incelenmiş ve kapsamlı bir şekilde değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca büyük döküm firmaları ile KOBİ’ler ve mikro işletmelerin farkları ortaya konmuş, Avrupa ve dünyadaki muadilleri ile karşılaştırılmış ve çeşitli önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Foundry, is one of the oldest in the industry. The first findings in casting are supposed be in BC 7500. Casting industry was very important in the past and it still is at the present time. In the past, communities that were improved on foundry, have done a variety of advanced ordnances and been very powerful in their era. People first used metals like gold and silver which are easily shaped and found as single elements in the nature. Then they discovered copper for the casting industry by chance since they noticed the high melting point of copper during use of copper ore in fire quenching. The casting technique that was used for the production of axes and other flakes by using one-piece open moulds, was developed by using two or more pieces moulds for the production of annular parts. In BC 2000's cores that are obtained from baked clays were started to use in order to have internal cavities. Hittite community was the first to use weapons made of iron in the years 1600BC. Even they have created an institution within the state for the iron trade and the iron trade was made under government control. Hittite King was the first one sitting on an iron throne in history. It is supposed that casting sector has started developing a lot around China starting from 1500 BC. It is also thought that Chinese are really proficient in molding of complex parts. Europeans have increased their knowledge of casting through various wars and migrations. The greatest occupation of European casters was molding bells to churches until the 13th century which indicates that casting industry in Europe was under the hegemony of the church at that time. Biringuccio who was the head of the papal foundry, has created Pirotechni which is the first written work on casting technology. As for the Ottoman Empire, cast of cannonballs, which is very hard to do compared to conditions of the era, has practiced by using the advanced technology of the period. The first large enterprise in the history of Turkish Republic was established within Sivas State Railways in 1937. Cast irons are preferred due to their relatively inexpensive prices, easy production and practicability in engineering. Since cast irons are iron-based alloys, it is very natural for them to show a wide range of change. In addition, due to differences in composition and structure of cast irons, there are characteristic differences in their properties. The iron types that are used in the recent industry mainly are: Grey Cast Iron, Ductile Iron, White Cast Iron, Malleable Cast Iron and compacted graphite iron (CGI). Types of cast iron in the thesis was examined under three headings. These are cast irons with low added value, with medium added-value and with high added-value. Gray cast irons within the low value – added cast irons; ductile iron, white cast iron and malleable cast iron under the title of mid – value added cast irons and compacted graphite irons, austempered ductile irons, High Si – Mo and Ni – Resist under the title of high value – added cast irons will be examined. Also, even though many different type of cores are used in the industry today, the most widely used method of cold – box method, hot - box method and the CO2 method is studied in this thesis. When today’s industry is considered, induction xx furnace is observed as the most commonly used furnace in casting. In addition, cupolas also are still continued to use in some small operations. Referring to the data of recent years, iron casting and non-ferrous casting in the world is increasing day by day. Cast products in many fields are observed when today’s industry is examined. In the machine industry, about 80 – 90 % of the manufactured products are produced by casting. Casting products are used in our global economy and every part of our lives such as significant parts of planes and automobiles, home applications and surgical equipments as well as being an important intermediate good of production industry. Casting industry in our country depends on automobile industry just like around the world. Foundries in Turkey are spread all around the country. But the majority is located in Istanbul, Konya, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, Kocaeli and Adana. Nowadays, with the developing technology and investments on r&d, the foundries in Europe has started use aluminum instead of cast iron in the production of some parts such as engines, cylinder heads etc. Thereby, they are trying to increase their market share just like in the past. Since casting is known to be based on energy and employees, today, casting industry is shifting from countries that have higher energy prices and labor wages to countries where wages and energy prices are cheaper. In developed countries such as U.S. and Germany orientation to high added value cast irons is increasing. .However, with developing technology, the orientation to produce casting parts with other materials, the decrease in the production of the casting industry and shifting to other areas are foresighted. In addition, since energy saving and material change are discussed due to cost and environment issues, demand to available sources in Turkish casting industry and similar casting industries will decrease and providing requirements from closer and more effective sources will be resorted. According to the foreign trade data prepared by Turkey Statistics Institute and Turkey Exporters Assembly together, Turkey has exported about $ 151,707,002,000 in 2013. The largest share in the export data belongs to the automotive sector with the value of $ 21,305,104,000. Iron-son-ferrous metals are in the second place with the value of $ 20,669,641,000. Casting company is a major contributor to Turkish economy. When looking at the 500 biggest firms in ISO 1 and 2 data, the role of the casting firms in the economy is apparent. 17 casting companies in Turkey exist among the largest 1000 companies. These data are the direct values of iron - steel industry. So when considering indirect exports, this number will be higher. Indirect export consists of machine industry manufacturers and automobile exporters as well as casting parts in sub-industry. Casting industry has a great importance for Turkish economy which leads many researches to be done about this sector. In turkey, the production in the casting industry is carried out by the large enterprises. Too much research has done about these companies which are few in number but have large production capacities as it was indicated above. In this thesis, the situations in the sector, capacities and opportunities of these companies and SMEs which are numerous but have low production capacity are analyzed. The evaluation has done in the direction of the answers of company owners to survey questions in order to do sector analysis in SMEs and mico enterprises. The survey consists of two parts. The first section consists of 25 questions under the heading of general information. The second section consists of 24 questions under the heading of technical information. The information obtained from the survey results, and the results are divided into 30 titles and presented visually. Interviews with the industry’s leading casting association, the Chamber of Metallurgical Engineers of Turkey, the casting industry related units of KOSGEB, the relevant units of the Ministry of Development and the relevant units of Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology were practiced in xxi order to make a complete analysis of sector. With the survey that has done with company owners, the situation of industry was seen exactly and presented in this thesis. In this thesis; employee profile, company profile, market distribution and annual earnings, the number of employers and their educations, firms’ decision makers, company trainings, firms’ relationships with virtual world, firms’ opinion about taxes, occupational health and safety overview of the firms, the operation reasons of the firms in the cities they locate, cast iron types produced in companies, companies’ opinions on casting associations and symposia, firms’ R&D and patent activities, firms’ electricity consumption and energy saving measures, the sectors that companies produces for, the casting magazines they follow, and many other issues were examined and evaluated extensively. Also differences between large casting companies and SMEs and micro enterprises have been revealed, compared with their counterparts in Europe and the world, and various suggestions have been made. According to TÜDÖKSAD data, our country has total 1388 casting company units. Approximately 680 of these are located in iron foundry industry. In the direction of this work, it was not possible to go to all of these companies. By making interviews with companies in Konya, Bursa, Adana, İzmir, Ankara and İstanbul where many casters exist, obtaining homogeneous results was endeavoured. The results outlined below, are not accurate results but it is an evalution which was tried to be made in a homogenous manner.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Dökme Demir, Demir Çelik Sektörü, KOBİ Metal Sektörü, KOBİ Gri Dökme Demir, Küresel Grafitli Dökme Demirler, Sektörel Analiz, Cast Iron, Iron Steel Sector, SMSE Metal Sector, Small And Medium Sized Firms Gray Cast İron, Nodular Graphite Cast İrons, Sectoral Analysis