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ÖgeAntifungal Activities of Different Essential Oils and Their Electrospun Nanofibers against Aspergillus and Penicillium Species Isolated from Bread(American Chemical Society, 2022) Karbancıoğlu Güler, Funda ; Devecioğlu, Tuğba ; Türker, Mustafa ; 0000-0001-6576-0084 ; 0000-0001-6681-0944 ; Food EngineeringMold growth, especially Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., deteriorates the quality of bakery products. Essential oils (EOs) have been categorized as good natural antimicrobials. Hereby, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of six EOs, ginger, cumin, cinnamon, black pepper, origanum, and clove, and their volatile compounds against fungal strains isolated from bread: Penicillium carneum DDS4, Aspergillus flavus DDS6, and Aspergillus niger DDS7 by disc diffusion and disc volatilization methods, respectively. Among EOs, cumin, cinnamon, origanum, and clove were found to be effective against fungal strains, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. The observed lowest MIC value of EOs was obtained at 1000 μg/mL concentration, and the lowest MFC value was obtained from the results of clove at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Based on the MIC and MFC values, clove and cinnamon EOs were found to be more effective at lower concentrations. Electrospun nanofiber films of clove and cinnamon were produced with 6% poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 2% β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and 2% EO to overcome the unfavorable sensory impact of EOs on food products. The inhibitory activity of cinnamon EO film (2.64–2.51 log(CFU/mg)) was considerably lower than clove EO film (3.18–3.24 log(CFU/mg)) against P. carneum DDS4 and A. niger DDS7. Furthermore, these nanofiber films prevented fungal growth on bread samples visibly and were shown to be an alternative application for active food packaging.
ÖgeSimultaneous Detection of Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Industrial and Traditional Red and isot Pepper Flakes along with Dietary Exposure Risk Assessment(American Chemical Society, 2022) Karbancıoğlu Güler, Funda ; Öztekin, Sebahat ; 0000-0001-6576-0084 ; 0000-0003-0859-1776 ; Food EngineeringThis study focused on the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in traditionally and industrially dried red pepper flakes (DRPFs) and isot pepper flakes (IPFs). Following the multitoxin immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to quantify AFs and OTA. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 0.11 and 0.18 μg kg–1 (AFB1), 0.04 and 0.08 μg kg–1 (AFB2), 0.13 and 0.18 μg kg–1 (AFG1), 0.04 and 0.11 μg kg–1 (AFG2), and 0.10 and 0.21 μg kg–1 (OTA), respectively. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and OTA were found to be positive in 93, 74, 17, and 94% of all samples, respectively. The contamination levels in positive samples ranged from 0.23 to 38.69, 0.04 to 2.14, 0.13 to 0.88, and 0.18 to 52.19 μg kg–1 for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and OTA, respectively, while no AFG2 was found above the detection limit (0.04 μg kg–1). None of the industrial isot peppers exceeded the European Union limits, while the levels of AFB1 (5 μg kg–1), total AFs (10 μg kg–1), and OTA (20 μg kg–1) of the traditional peppers were above the limit by 30% (16/54), 26% (14/54), and 4% (2/54), respectively. Co-occurrence of AFB1-AFB2-OTA was the most frequent, accounting for 54% (29/54) of all samples. At the upper bound (UB), estimated average exposure to AFB1, total AFs, and OTA was determined to be 0.175, 0.189, and 0.124 ng kg–1 bw day–1 in all samples, respectively. The margin of exposure (MoE) value of AFB1 and total AFs was found to be 977 and 909, indicating high health concerns compared to OTA (MoE >10,000). AFB1 and total AFs may result in 0.0058 and 0.0062 liver cancer cases/100,000 person/year at UB, respectively, and weekly OTA exposure was 0.868 ng kg–1 bw, well below the provisional tolerable weekly intake, hence not of health concern. AFs exposure could endanger health, whereas OTA posed no toxicological concerns through dried red pepper consumption