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Title: 20. Yüzyıl Endüstri Tasarımında Tarihsellik
Other Titles: The Role Of Historical Heritage In The Twentieth Century Design
Authors: Özer, Filiz
Özsoy, Nalan
Sanat Tarihi
Art History
Keywords: Sanat Tarihi
Endüstriyel tasarım
Art History
Industrial design
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: 19. yüzyılda endüstrileşme hız kazanmış; yeni üretim teknikleri ve malzemelerinin ürüne dönüştürülmesinde, geçmiş biçim ve motifler tekrarlanmıştır. Neo-Klasik, Gotik, egzotik ya da farklı üslupların karışımından oluşan eklektik tasarımların yaygınlığı, bu yüzyılın belirleyici özelliği olan tarihseldi iği yansıtmıştır. Yüzyılın sonundan başlayarak, tarihselciliğe tepki duyan akımlar ve üsluplar ortaya çıkmış; bunlar, çağın üretim teknikleri ve malzemelerine uygun, özgün bir tasarım anlayışını savunan Modernizme giden yolda öncülük etmişlerdir. Modernizm Uluslararası Üslupla birlikte kurumsallaşırken, kitle kültürünün tasarımda önemsenmesi önerisiyle başlayan farklı tasarım seçenekleri ortaya konmuştur. Bunlardan biri olan Pop Tasarımın başlattığı tarihi üslupları kullanma özgürlüğü, Post-Modern Durumu yansıtan Post-Modern tasarımın da benimsediği bir görüş olmuştur. Post-Modern tasarım, üslup tarihini farklı uygulamalarda kullanabileceği bir alan olarak tanımlamıştır ; motif dilinin tekrarlanması, tarihi biçimlerin karikatürize edilmesiyle birlikte, tarihsellikten özgün bir tasarıma ulaşmada yararlanıldığı da gözlenmektedir. Tezin taşıdığı amaç, endüstri tasarımının gelişiminde ve günümüzde sergilediği görünümde tarihi mirasa bakışın değerlendirilmesidir.
It was in the nineteen century the Industrial Revolution gathered momentum and the gulf between design and production became most acute. With the introduction of large-scale commercial production, objects and artefacts could readily be produced in new materials and using new production techniques it became possible to simulate craftmanship. Rich textures and intricate design became widely accessable at modest cost. Such products were satisfying among the new middle classes, who demanded public and domestic environments that would express their taste and standing. Newly acquired wealth and position often manifested itself in a piling-up of decorative effect. Manufacturers, seeking profitabiliy, used decoration to make simple articles look more complex, and therefore more expensive. Design source of industrial production was mainly shape and pattern books. In the early sixteen century, these books were used in Germany and Italy. They were collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms, patterns and motifs. The pattern books contained designs that could be applied repetitively and in a variety of contexts. The pattern books included forms derived from a variety of sources; although many artists provided designs for the books, producers themselves contributed to the forms including their friends and acquaintances. While academic research and intellectual debate were directed to determining which historical form was most suitable for adoptation as a contemporary national style, manufacturers pillaged the stylistic canons of past cultures in search of novelty. Lack of trained designers worsened the situation. Greek and Gotik revivals took place along with exotic designs. Greek revival manifested itself as the continuation of Neo-Clasical style. Emerged as the dominant style in the second half of the eighteenth century, it went on asserting its importance in the nineteenth century. While the neo-clasisicism of the eighteenth century had relied heavily on the monochrome ' noble simplicity and calm grandeur ' of Greek architecture and sculpture, nineteenth century discovery that Greek architecture was in fact polychromatic resulted in the polychromy of the century. Gothic style was the strongest alternative for neo-clasisicism. Gothick revivalists argued that neo-clasisicism was appropriate for pagan Greeks but not for Christians. A.W.N.Pugin was the leading Gothic revivalist; his book ' The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture ' ( 1841 ) turned the aesthetic argument for Gothic into a crusade. In common with the rest of his generation, Pugin was prepared to use industrial processes for the good of the Church, but he remained inventive. When architect, William Butterfield objected on ' archaelogical grounds to Pugin1 s use of blue in tiles, as it was not a color that ' existed ' in the Middle Ages, Pugin's retord was that if medieval craftsmen had had the color, they would have used it.' Stylistic eclecticism was the main characteristic of the nineteenth century. Owen Jones's ' Grammer of Ornament ' made the greatest contribution to this eclecticism. It was an equivalent of an encyclopedia of styles; containing all of the available language of design styles. Newly appreciated cultures became part of the European design vocabulary. Japanese art was frequently compared to Greek art, its novelty was overwhelming. Although appreciated for his scientific and functional work, Christopher Dresser' designs reflected eclecticism as witty quotations from variety of sources. The anarchy of styles in the nineteenth century resulted in the idea of a reform regarding design. The most influential criticism was that of John Ruskin, William Morris and their followers. The Arts and Crafts movement was initiated as an ideological reaction to the effects of industrialization. The movement, which began in Britain, dominated ah important sector of artistic thought in the second half of the nineteenth century and heralded the start of a new appreciation of the decorative arts througout Europe and America. The style produced by the movement represented a search for a means to embody the natural unity between form, function and decoration, a guiding principle was that an object should be fit for the purpose for which it was made. A style emerged that derived its inspiration from many different sources. Sources ranged from the historicism of Gothic to the abstracted organic forms derived from a strong vernacular tradition. Form and shape were often simpleand made use of plain, linear or organic shapes. This derived mainly from the massive forms of early Gothic architecture. Natural plant, bird and animal forms were a powerful source of inspiration for many designers. Among the second generation of Arts and Crafts designers there was more abstraction paving the way for Art Nouveau. Like the Arts and Craft movement, Art Nouveau emerged as aco- ordinating force. The sources of Art Nouveau were diverse. Although the movement seeked to create new artistic forms and in doing so rejected the retrospective inspirations of past generations, it embraced a number of traditional period tastes. This eclecticism encompassed foreign and exotic arts and also incorparated contemporary trends. VI Linearity remained the essence of Art Nouveau composition in all its aspects from the attenuated configurations of the Glasgow school to the whiplash curves of Henry van de Velde. Unlike Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau appriciated the benefits of mass-production and other technological advancements. In America there was a move towards a functional definition of architecture. In Chicago, a fire in 1871 had wiped out many of the important buildings. Because of the price of the land and the commercial necessity of being in the center of the town, the ' skyscraper ' emerged as an answer to this practical problem. Louis Sullivan developed his ideas about the development of a new architectural aesthetic, evolving his thesis that ' form follows function '. Frank Lloyd Wright, the other important American architect from this period, applauded high-rise buildings and the machine aesthetic. These theories, developed at the turn of the century, were to be extremely influential on European and American Modernism in later years. Although concerned with standarts of craftmamship rather than with industrial production, The Art Nouveau movement of the 1890s, particularly in the Jugendstil variant of Germany and Austria, was an important stage in the transition to functionalism. While its development in France, Belgium andltaly was characterized by he use of abstracted natural forms, with a sinuos power of line and three-dimentional moulding that blended the constituent elements of design into an integrated whole, in Germany it was to take a different course. In Munich, in the work of artists and designers such as August Endell, Herman Obrist, Peter Behrens and Richard Riemerschmied, the flowing curvilinear elements were at first subdued and controlled, and later transmuted into formal compositions of geometric elements. In general, Art Nouveau artists reacted against the diversity, or, as they saw it, the confusion of their times. They rejected the use of the past forms and attempted to create a new, universal style which would harmonize all aspects of the visual environment into a total entity, a complete work of art that would be the embodiement of culturel and social unity. At the heart of the Art Nouveau movement, however, there was an essential dilemma that prevented the realization of these aspirations. This was exemplified in the work and writings of Henry van de Velde. His writings can be seen prophetically modern, citing transport vehicles, bathroom fittings, electric lamps and surgical instruments as ' modern inventions which attract by their beauty ', and advocating rationaliy in design and mass-production. VII He was strongly influenced by Ruskin and Morris, although discarding their overt nostalgia for the past, sought to develop their moral and social principles, argueing that objects could not be considered separately from the process of production and utulization, and that artists must be controlling influences to ensure the predominance of human needs. Van de Velde emphasized that if the artists concerned themselves solely with new forms, these could be exploited out of context, and his fears were realized. Art Nouveau designs were widely adopted for industrial mass-production as one style among manyto satisfy current fashionable taste. From 1900 Van de Velde worked in Germany, later becoming a leading figure in an organisation formed to reconcile art and industry: the Deutsche Werkbund. The foundation of the Werkbund resulted from contacts between a group of designers, industrialists, journalists and officials, united in their concenr for standarts of German design. The foundation document of the Werkbund stated its purpose as 1 the improvement of professional work through the co-operation of art, industry and the crafts, through education, propaganda and united attitudes to pertinent questions '. The aim was not just to improve aesthetic standarts: ' The validity of artistic standarts is intimately linked with the general cultural aspirations of our time, with the striving for harmony, for social decency, for united leadership of work and life '. The hopes for united attitudes, however, were short-lived. The sharp polarization developed around the two figures of Hermann Muthesius and Van de Velde. The first major Modern movement was to take place in Holland. De Stijl movement was based on an idealist philosophy that sought an art embodying a new vision of modern life. In the work of De Stijl artists such as the painters Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian, and the architects J.J.P.Oud and Rob van t'Hoff, there was a gradual development leading to a total geometric abstraction. Their ideas were influenced by those of Mondrian's friend M.J.H. Schoenmackers who was a mathematician stressing the mathematical order of the universe. Formal composition became restricted to the fundamental elements of the horizantal and vertical line, the three primary colors, red, blue and yellow, and the three non-colors, black, white and grey represent all visible reality. They sought to compose these conflicting elements of line, plane and color into an image of equilibrium and proportion, as a symbol of the universal harmony of life. In 1918, architect and cabinet-maker Gerrit Rietveld joined the group. In the same year he designed his famaous ' Red, Blue and Yellow 'chair. It was one of the first tangible expressions of the De Stijl ideas, made of wooden laths and plywood sheets, laid on or alongside one another, screwed together without joints, and painted in primary colors. It was a fundamertal structural redefinitiorr of the chair, without precedent. viii Rietveld continued to experiment with designs for buildings, furniture and fittings, an exploration of the De Stijl aesthetic culminating in the Schroder House in Utrecht in 1924. The functional organization and formal elements of the house and its complete furnishings and fittings were fused into an integrated environment. Artists creating universally relevant forms for industry came to be identified with the Bauhaus. It was a teaching institution founded at Weimar in 1919 under the directorship of Walter Gropius. In the early years of the Bauhause, the stress was on uniting art and industry. Two important things characterize the Bauhase: first one is the method of education evolved there was uniquely appropriate to industrial design and the second, that the institution is to be regarded as the source of modern industrial design. After Modernism, The Post-Modem condition has created a new look to historical styles. Regarding the attitudes towards historical heritage as a source of inspiration, different experiments take their place under the banner of Post-Modem design
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
Appears in Collections:Sanat Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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