Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17659
Title: Değişim Mühendisliği Felsefesi Ve Bu Felsefenin Bir İmalat Şirketinde Uygulanmasının Değerlendirilmesi
Authors: Durmuşoğlu, Semra
Altunterim, Kaan
64227
İşletme
Management
Keywords: İşletme
Değişim mühendisliği
Üretim endüstrisi
İşletmeler
Business Administration
Reengineering
Production industry
Businesses
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Değişim Mühendisliği; stratejik ve değer yaratan bir iş sürecinin iş akışı ve verimliliği optimize etmek, kalite, maliyet, hizmet ve hız performans ölçütlerinde çarpıcı gelişmeler yaratabilmek amacı ile temelden yeniden düşünülmesi ve radikal bir biçimde yeniden tasarlanmasıdır. Bu radikal tasarımın gerçekleştirilebilmesi için öncelikle stratejik ve değer yaratan iş süreçlerinin belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu süreçler şirketin temel amaç ve hedeflerine ulaşmasına hizmet eden araçlardır. Stratejik iş süreçlerinin belirlenmesinde değişim ihtiyacına inanmış bir liderin ve bu değişimi gerçekleştirebilmek üzere bir araya gelmiş hırslı bir ekibin çok sistematik bir şekilde çalışması gerekecektir. Lider, ilk olarak Değişim Mühendisliği'ni uygulayacak insanları organize eder, gerekli araçlarla donatır ve cesaretlendirir. Daha sonra şirketin değişim ihtiyacı ve Değişim Mühendisliği çalışmalarından neler hedeflediği ortaya konur. Bu hedeflere ulaşma yollan zerindeki iş süreçleri hedefe ulaşmaya ve şirketin o an ki durumuna bağlı olarak ağırlık vereceği kriterlere uygun olarak sıralanır ve müşteri odaklı bir yaklaşım ile yeniden tasarlanır. Yeniden tasarım aşamasında, Değişim Mühendisliği'ni diğer yönetim geliştirme tekniklerinden ayıran Sosyal Tasarım ve Teknik Tasarım adımları birlikte uygulanır. Sosyal tasarım, insanların doğasında var olan "durumu koruma" ya da "değişime direnme" içgüdülerini yenmek için uygulanan bir kurallar dizisidir. Teknik Tasarım ise yeniden tasarlanan iş süreçlerinin faaliyet adımlarını teknoloji yardımı ile hızlandırma ya da ortadan kaldırmanın yollarının araştırıldığı kurallar dizisidir. Yeniden tasarlanan sürecin uygulamaya geçişinden önce simülasyonlar ve pilot uygulamalar ile test edilmesi gerekmektedir. Özellikle müşteri ile direkt ilişkide olan süreçlerin bu tip bir pilot uygulama olmaksızın uygulamaya alınması çok ciddi problemler yaratabilmektedir. Pilot uygulama aşamasında ortaya çıkan problemlere çözümler getirilir ve hatasız ya da çok az hatalı olduğu düşünülen süreçler uygulamaya alınır. Bir sürecin Değişim Mühendisliği'nden geçirilmiş olması onun bir daha Değişim Mühendisliği'nden geçirilmeyeceği anlamına gelmemektedir. Değişim sürekli olduğu sürece süreçlerin yeniden tasarlanmaları da bir ihtiyaç olacaktır. Uygulama bölümünde delici ve kesici takım imalatı konusunda Türkiye pazarının lideri olan Makina Takım Endüstrisi A.Ş.'nin "Siparişin Alınması ve Temin Kaynağına iletilmesi" sürecine uyguladığı Değişim Mühendisliği çalışması ve bu çalışmadan sağladığı zaman tasarrufu ele alınmaktadır
Introduction Reengineering is the latest buzzvvord in business. Some companies are achieving extraordinary results. Companies ali över the world are embracing this new management program to improve every conceivable aspect of their business. in theory, reengineering promises to transform these companies, fundamentally changing the way they do their work. The hard part is putting theory into practice. For successful reengineering to take place, a company first must be clear about what it is trying to accomplish and how it will go about doing it. 2. Definition of Reengineering Reengineering is the rapid and radical redisgn of strategic, value - added business processes - systems, policies and organizational structures that support them - to optimize the work flows and productivity in an organization. 2.1. Processes A process is an interrelated series of activities that converts business inputs into business outputs. For example; "fulfill orders" is a process. Processes themselves are composed of activities. There are three primary types of activities in a business process; value - adding activities, hand-off activities and control activities. viii Value adding activities add something of importance to the customer. Hand-off activities are those everyday transactions that move pieces of work across functional and departmental boundaries within the company. Control activities are there to control the hand-offs across the boundaries. Not ali processes are targets for reengineering. Reengineering only targets those that are strategic and value -added. Strategic processes are the ones central to the company's definition of itself. They are its essential vehicle for achieving objectives, goals, positioning and stated strategy. Most business units can be functionally decomposed into a dozen ör so processes. in most cases, no more than a half-dozen processes are both strategic and value-added. To achieve maximum return on your investment in reengineering, it is both logical and prudent to begin by focusing on the most important processes in the corporation. 2.2. Systems, Policies and Organization Business processes are facilitated by a support infrastructure. Each of the infrastructure items must be aligned with nevvly reengineered process flows. Policies must be revised so that reports mandated only under the old process do not continue to be produced. Organizational structures supporting the work must be realigned so that, for example, the process itself has an owner, instead of having its ovvnership shared by several function managers. A business process cannot be changed unless ali of these supporting elements are changed as well. 3. Reengineering vs. Incremental improvement Programs Reengineering differs from continuous incremental improvement programs in several important ways. Reengineering is;. Not just automation, although it often uses technology in creative and innovative ways.. Not just reorganization, although it almost alvvays requires organizational change.. Not just dovvnsizing, although it usually improves productivity.. Not just quality, althoug it is almost alvvays focused on customer satisfaction and the processes that support it. ix Reengineering is a balanced approach that may contain elements of these more traditional improvement programs with vvhich it is often confused. But Reengineering is also much more. First, Reengineering seeks breakthroughs in important measures of performance rather than incremental improvements. Second, it pursues multifaceted improvement goals, including quality, cost, flexibility, speed, accuracy, and customer satisfaction, concurrently, vvhereas the other programs focus on fewer goals ör trade off among them. 4. Reengineering Methodology 4.1. Stage 1 : Preparation The purpose of this stage is to mobilize, organize, and energize the people who will perform reengineering. This stage will produce a mandate for change. in this stage, the management techniques are used as follovvs ; Goal Seeking, Facilitation, Team Building, Motivation, Change Management, Şelf Assessment, Environmental Assessment and Project Management. 4.2. Stage 2 : İdentifıcation This stage develops are understanding of the business's customer- oriented process model. İdentifıcation produces definitions of customers, processes, and performance measures, and identifıes value-adding processes. 4.3. Stage 3 : Vision The purpose of this stage is to develop a process vision capable of achieving breakthrough performance for the processes selected to be reengineered. This stage identifies current process elements, problems, and issues; comparative measures of current process performance; improvement opportunities and objectives; definitions of what changes are required; and produces statements of the new process "vision". x 4.4. Stage 4a : Solution : Technical Design The purpose of this stage is to specify the technical dimension of the new process. This specification will produce descriptions of technology, standards, procedures, systems and controls employed; designs for the interaction of social and technical elements; preliminary plans for development, procurement, facilities, tests, conversions and deployment. 4.5. Stage 4b : Solution : Social Design The purpose of this stage is to specify the social dimensions of the new process. This stage produces descriptions of organization, staffing, jobs, career paths, and incentives employed; designs for the interaction of technical and social elements; and preliminary plans for recruitment, education, training, reorganization, and redeployment. 4.6. Stage 5 : Transformation The purpose of this stage is to realize the process vision. This final stage produces pilot and full production versions of the reengineered process(es) and continual change mechanisms. 5. Common Causes of Reengineering Failure Six common causes of project failure are; Lacking active participation by senior management. Attempting to reengineer a function instead of a process. Reengineering subprocesses instead of major business processes. Trying to fix a process instead of changing it. Settling for minor improvements. Attempting to reengineer from the bottom (or middle) up. XI 6. Conclusions The basic principles of reengineering are;. Organize work around outcomes, not tasks.. Design processes that can be accomplished by as few employees as possible (ideally one).. Charge those who will use the output of a process with performing it.. Build decision making and internal control into the process.. Link parallel activities and perform them concurrently whenever possible. Reengineering is necessary under several conditions;. When your performance lags substantially behind your competitors or you face a business crisis, such as declining market share, and you need to rapidly attain process improvements of 50 percent or more to catch up.. When new developments, often technological advances, change your market place and demand action.. When your competitors undertake process innovation and you must respond with comparable improvements.. When you wish to establish or maintain competitive advantage
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17659
Appears in Collections:İşletme Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lİsans

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
64227.pdf4.89 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.