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|Title:||Tanbur tekniği üzerine bir deneme|
Performance & Voice
|Publisher:||Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü|
Institute of Social Sciences
|Abstract:||Türk Müsiğinin önemli bir sazı olmasına rağmen, tekniği hakkında çok fazla eser meydana getirilmemiştir. Bu tez çalışması metod ve etüd ihtiyacına bir başlangıç niteliği taşımaktadır. İçeriğinde daha çok mızrap vuruşları ve parmak pozisyonları üzerinde durulmuştur. Tanburdan en iyi verimi alabilmek için tablolar ve şekiller oluşturulmuş, örnek eserler üzerinde çalışmalar yapılmış ve ayrıca tanbur için etüd ve egzersizler yazılmıştır.|
Tanbur is the most important stringed and picked instruments in Turkish Music. The original word "tunbur" is Arabic and it comes the word "pantur", a Sumerian word which means an instrument with a half- sphere body long necked and strings. Later the word was referred to all instruments with pear like shaped body and long neck, in Persia and Middle Asia. According to European travellers, because of the partitions on the neck, "tanbur" was considered the only instrument which reflects Turkish Musical sound system and as far as it is known it is used only in Turkey in today. The body of "tanbur" is half -sphere which consists of stacked wooden pieces, and its length is around 35 cm. The neck is around 104 cm. and is unified with the body,by setting up in a wooden wedge. The place of pegs are belong to the neck. The front of tanbur is made of a pine tree (generally spruce) which is 1.5 or 2 mm. thick panel. Strings are tied to the holes in the edge of main body after passing the main bridge on the main body. The bottom of the neck is round and the top of it is plain. The ties of partitions were made by intestines (kiriş) in the old times. Afterward almost all "tanburies" (except Tanburi Necdet Yaşar ) preferred plastic strings to make partitions. The number of partitions is differs from 40 to 50. Some tanburies make more than 50 partitions for their tanburs. IV Tanbur has eight strings. In the tune of "bolahenk" the tune of tanbur is like that: From bottom, 1,2,5, and 6th. strings (steel) is tuned to "Yegah" (re=440) partitions, 3. and 4th strings (brass) to "Kaba Yegah" (la) or "Kaba Rast" (sol). Because of considering the mode (makam) the musical piece which is going to be played, these strings can also be tuned in "Kaba Acemişiran" (fa), "Kaba Irak"(fa sharp) or in " Kaba Segah" (si coma bemol) partitions. The 7th. string on top (brass) can be tuned to "Kaba Dügah", "Kaba Rast", "Kaba Kürdi", and "Kaba Segah". The eight string (brass) is thicker than 3.,4., and 7th. strings and is tuned in "Kaba Yegah", "Kaba Çergah", "Kaba Hisar" and "Kaba Acemişiran" partitions. The sound area of tanbur is three octaves. At most only 2.5 octaves are used. The rest half octave on the lowest sound is used very rarely. Two strings at the bottom are consists the main area of the instrument. In these two strings from "Yegah" to "Tiz Neva" two octave sound is available. The pick is generally made of tortoise shell called "bağa". It's almost 12 cm. long, 9-10 mm. width, and 1-1.5 mm. thick, inflexible pick and both sides of it are used. The hand which holds the pick is on the position that points to the main body of tanbur. "The ratio between the bottom where the pick hits the strings and the upper side of it is one third". This formula is belong to Tanburi Cemil Bey and transferred to Necdet Yaşar by Mesud Cemil Bey. In Turkish Music literature the knowledge from past about playing style of tanbur is almost none. But from the performance we can see that the performance is so simple and very slow. If it is analysed from the oldest tanbur performances the division of the value of the notes the basic foundations of the characteristics of tanbur style about that period (XVII-XVIII. century) could be understood. In the period of Selim the Third, tanbur style one hit to each notes. Musicologists estimates that this style is older than period of Selim the Third. All tanburies in his period accepted this style as an exemplar, and compose their pieces according to that exemplar. The classical tanbur style had a technical reformation with the contribution of Tanburi Cemil Bey. This transformation is related to the modernist movement in Turkey and advancement of technology. "Energetic performance in playing, with the skill of hand and finger presenting new things, and produce unusual combinations of sounds or trying to create new tones are actually presented by the first time with Tanburi Cemil Bey (1871-1916)". Tanburi Cemil Bey is known as a creator of a new style and a form in tanbur playing. Cemil Bey has also been playing lute, kemancha, and tanbur with bow in great virtuosity besides of tanbur. His virtuosity is understood from the old records. After the few years of Tanburi Cemil Bey's death, Musa VI Süreyya Bey wrote an essay and he mentioned that he accomplished the all technique difficulties in performances and added velocity and energy which is called "ajilite" in Turkish music. Having a look at all the Turkish musical instruments, tanbur has an important position in them, and when you happen to review the past and the present of it, it attracts attention that there are only a few works that may improve the playing style of tanbur. This work of thesis owns the speciality of starting to help within the absence of method and study for tanbur. Some examinations on various types of finger positions and plectrum usage are explained here. Also the best way of tuning in order to catch the best sound is examined, and a number of tables and diagrams are used to show them. And while doing these some sample works are studied and some exercises are written for tanbur. The most important problem that may occur during the learning of how to play the tanbur is the absence or insufficiency of methods that teach the player what is right to play and what is wrong. So this work prepared as a master thesis is aimed to be a source to the ones who has just started playing or in the wish of improving. VII Being apart of owning the natural ability of playing an instrument, the student can get a good level in a short while at playing his instrument in case of having a good teacher, a suitable instrument, and also methods and exercises plus a disciplined work. Taking the advantage of being able to study the previous surveys and experiences; the studies that will be done in the future related within to improve the technique and volume capacity; will bring the tanbur and in connection with the Turkish music, a new breath; and this work is a small step to realise this aim.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997|
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
|Appears in Collections:||Çalgı-Ses(Tezli/Tezsiz) Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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