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Title: Türk Tasavvuf Musıkisi'nde Durak Formunun Yeri Ve Önemi
Authors: Deran, Erol
Varol, Aydın
Keywords: Durak form
Türk tasavvuf musikisi
Durak form
Turkish mysticism music
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Türk Tasavvuf Mûsikîsinde Durak formunun yeri ve önemi konulu araştırmamız giriş bölümü bunu takib eden üç bölüm ve sonuç bölümü olmak üzere toplam beş bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş bölümünde durak formu konusuna genel bir bakış ve araştırmamızın amacına yönelik açıklamalar yer almaktadır. İkinci bölümde Türk Tasavvuf Mûsikîsi çok geniş bir perspektiv ile ele alınarak incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde Araştırmamızın ana konusunu teşkil eden Durak Formu Tasavvuf! mânâ yönünden, Yapısal açıdan, Makamsal açıdan, Usûl ve icra yönünden ve de güfte yönünden incelemeye tâbi tutulmuştur. Dördüncü bölümde, araştırmalarımız sonucunda tespit edebildiğimiz tarihten günümüze kadar bestelemiş olan, günümüz teknolojisinin ulaştığı en üst seviyede, bilgisayar ortamında yazımı ve basımı gerçekleştirilmiş 134 adet durak notası yer almaktadır. Türk Tasavvuf Mûsikîsinin en nadide formlarından biri olan durak formunun, üzerinde hassas çalışmalar yapılarak, Mûsikîmize ve kültürümüze yeniden kazandırılması gerekmektedir.
The position and significance of the Durak form in Turkish Mystical Music The Durak form occupies an extraordinary position among the various forms of Turkish Mystical Music due equally to its compositional form, its execution and the unique characteristics with which it is endowed in the context of mystical ceremonies. Some oft the most protound expressions of Turkish mystical literature and the most hearhelt and artistically sophisticated melodies of Turkish Mystical Music are found in the durak form, m a sublime mannev, music in thisform carries the person who listens with faith and deep reverence from the world oft the material to the realm of spiritual sensibility by drawing his attention to the loftiness of the divice and the human spirit. Unforgettable masterpieces of Turkish Mystical Music have been produced by outstanding composers including Ismail Dede Efendi, Ali Dede Şîr-ü Ganî, Zekâî Dede, Hacı Arif Bey, İsmail Hakkı Bey, Hüseyin Saadeddin Arel, Dr. Suphi Ezgi and Saadeddin Kaynak. The durak form has herotofove not been examined on an extensive basis. We are honoved to have had the opportunity to research this max vm precious musical form under the auspices of Î.T.Ü.S.B.E., and to present the results of our study for the benetit of today's cultural and musical communties and of future generations of scholars. Our study is comprised of five sections : 1- Introduction An overview of the durak form and a statement of the objectives of our research. 2- An investigation of Turkish Mystical Music and its history, viewed from a broad perspective. 3- An investigation of the durak form both the musical and the mystical perspective. 4-A compilation of durak compositions gathered in extensive research and presented in modern musical notation 5- Conclusion. Unquestionably, the revelation to this world of the religion of Hz. Allah began with Hz. Adam, the first human being and the first prophet. Hz. Allah taught Hz. Adam all of this holy names. We are informed of this by the 31st ayat of the sura Baqara of the Holy Kovan-Qur'an: "Allah taught Adam all the names (Q2.3 1)" The true reality of all religions, from the beginning of man kind until the comptetion of the revelation through Hz.Muhammed, is the same. This is explained in the 84*. Ayat of the sur Al-lmran of the Holy Qur'an: "Say: We believe in God, and in what has been revealef to us, and what was vevealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes and in the Books given to Moses, Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord: We make no IX distinction between are and another among them and to God do we bend our will (Q3.84) (Q3.84) Unfortunately, most of these religions have been changed and distorted by some of their practitioners. However, profound correspondences are by some of these religions and Islam, the religion at Hz.Allah in its undistorted form, are compared Because the religions beliefs and articles of faith of the ancient Turks closely resemble those of Islam, it because widely known and accepted as early as the 10th century. After the ancient Turks accepted Islam, they continued some of the practices of their earlier shamanistic religion within the context of Islam. Since the 13* century, the mystical ovientation and tradition have been accorded great emphasis in Turkey. The Yeseviye Tariqat (tariqat: mystical religious order) was founded by Ahmed Yeseviye. This together with its descendants, the Nakshiye Tariqat, because known as the Horasan Ekolü. The Horasan Ekolü and the Ahilik Institution greatly influenced Anatolian Turks and, later, Turks hvingi under the aegis of the Ottoman Empire, on both social and structural levels. The mystical expressions of the Rıfaiye, Bedeviye and Kadriye Tariqats, and their branches known as the Hicaz and Bağdat Ekol have been accepted by Turks. As a result of this, a very rich mystical culture arose among the Turks living in the period of the Ottoman Empire. The actual practies emplayed in religious ceremonies form the most important part of this culture. X T.M.M. is functional music. All of this music, including the durak form was composed expressly to be played during ceremonies. Therefore, it is appropriate have to delineate the main types of these ceremonies. These ceremonies can be divided into three categories: A- KUÛDÎ (Sitting position) chanting religious prages. B-KIYÂMÎ (Standing position) " C- DEVRÂNÎ (Walking in circular) chanting religious prages. "Mevlevi semai" and "Bektaşi Samahı" should be examined apart from these main groups. A- Some branches of Nakshibendî Tariqat have assumed the Kuûdî way B- "Kâdirî, Rıfat, Bedevi, Sadî tariqati" have assumed the Kıyâmî way C- "Halvetçilik" and all its branches, and the "Eşrefi" branch of the "Kâdirî tarikatı" have assumed the Devrânı way. The various Turkish Mystical Music compostional forms employed in religious ceremonies is as follows: -İlâhi - Tevşih -Cumhur -Şuûl - Mevlevi Âyin-i Şerifi -Nâ't -Durak - Mersiye -Savt - Nefes - Miraciye XI We will discuss the durak form, the particular focus of the present work, from the following perspectives: - Mystical meaning - Musical Form -Makam - Ritm, enterpertasion - Literature In the fourth section of our study, 134 durak notes has been determined in modern musical notation by the highest computer setting. This section covers a wide range of archive study of Turkish culture and music which has not been realized until today. The durak, form which is one of the most precious forms of the Turkish mystical music, must be brought back to its exceptional place and even further, to fulfill whether the research or realization of the very delicate studies of todays musical community and the future generations. This is a necessity for the evolution fact which exists in the nature of objects. Therefore, the durak form should be researched and investigated with most consideration for the benefit of developing Turkish culture and ascending it to a higher level among the universal culture.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
Appears in Collections:Music Graduate Program - Doctorate

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