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Title: Küçük metal madenlerinde üretim ve nakliye sistemleri
Other Titles: Production And Transportation İn Small Metal Mine
Authors: Saltoğlu, Senai
Kayandan, Ali
Maden Mühendisliği
Mining Engineering
Keywords: LHD sistemi
Muğla Üçköprü Krom İşletmeleri = ; Taşıyıcı sistemler
Yer altı madenciliği
Üretim sistemleri
LHD system ; Muğla Üçköprü Krom İşletmeleri =Supporting systems
Underground mining
Production systems
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu çalışmada metal madenlerinde üretim ve nakliyede kullanılan makine ve ekipmanlar tanıtılarak, insan gücüne dayalı ve mekanize üretim yapan işletmelere ait örnekler verilmiştir. Günümüzde özellikle Avrupa ve Amerika'da yeraltı metal ve kömür madenlerindeki üretim ve nakliyede diesel motorlu araçların kullanımı artmıştır. Bu çalışmada LHD sistemi tanıtılarak, sistemde kullanılan makinalar hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. LHD araçlarının yeraltı metal madenlerinde kullanımı ile; - Insangücüne dayalı işletmelerde 1-2 ton/vardiya kişi olan üretim 15-25 ton/vardiya kişi değerlerine çıkmaktadır. - İşçilik maliyetleri en aza inmektedir. - Son derece emniyetli çalışma şartlan elde edilmektedir. Göçük tehlikesi olan yerlerde uzaktan kumandalı yükleyici kullanılabilmesi kazaları en aza indirmektedir. - Ayrıca üretimin hız kazanması ile, üretim bir veya iki panoya toplanarak etkili bir denetim sağlanmaktadır.
In this study, production and transportation systems in our country and countries with high-tech are researched. Small metal mines are defined with their technical developments and economical power. They are; - Level of the production, - Number of workers, - Management, - Investment cost, - Revenue of sales, - Profitability. In addition, definition of small metal mines are different, depending on the economical development of this country. If mine production capacity is below 500 ton/day, all of them are called "small metal mine" according to international standarts in Mining Magazine Journal. For example, small mining activities are widespread, in Peru according to 1978 Mining Law; if; - Earning in one year is 2000-4000 $ (1979), - Production capacity is maximum 200 ton are in one day, - Work field is lower than 1000 hectare, this management is called "small mining management". In 1988 the small mining managements are defined as, - Production capacity is between 12.500 ton/year and 100.000 ton/year. - Management life is between 1 to 10 years. - Number of workers between 10 to 100 person. - Earning of sale is between 0,12-10 millions $/year. - Investment cost is between 0,04-10 millions $ in an assembly in Turkey. Even though it is not a certain record, 10% of the mining production in the world is realized by small mining management in the 1972. Nowadays, we can say that this proportion is around 20%. viii In some metals, portion of the small mines are higher. For example 25% at antimony 20% at half valuable ores, 20-30% at industrial mineral 50% of plaster and kaolin. 10% of gold, 15% of tin and 15% of tungsten of the world production is realized by small mining management. Specially, lead, antimony, tungsten, gold, zinc, silver, manganes, iron, tin and industriel raw materials are produced by small metal mining in the developing countries. The characteristics of the small metal mines are diferent in the European countries than in developing countries. In the undeveloped countries the works are done manualy, but in the developed countries, the works are done automatically, in the small metal mines. Developed countries has solved the unemployment problem by creating employment opportunities. In the European countries, the expensive productive effort is reduced by technical systems. In developing countries, exchange, is very important source which win by production. This state is same in the developed countries. In developing countries, the effeciency of the production is lower, because their production is not based on technology. In developing countries, production quantity in one day and for one worker increases from 1-2 tons up to 20-25 tons. The cost of workmanship is higher in developing countries, because the work realized by handwork there. In the countries which labor cost is high, the marginal workmanship is minimum and also, in the first 4-5 years, the amortization costs are very high. Most of the time the unnecessary cost is higher in developing countries, even some of the companies go bankrupt because that the exploration study isn't done. The accident per unit production quantity is high in the developing countries, because of the safety expedients aren't sufficient. In developed countries, safety is important, so that all their systems are mechanical. They need wide road according to conveyor belts and railway cars transport. The latrice wire added spray concreate system is used widespread in the management which used LHD systems. IX The method's principles are as follows. - The main materials of the underground systems is mount. - The rock is carry it's hardness in the begining and finishing. Vehicles and consider the following combine systems: - LHD loaders and railway car transportation. - LHD loaders and conveyor belt transportation. - Only UTD loaders. - LHD loaders and trucks. Best system is that compozed by loaders and two trucks with transport capacity 35 tons and the second best system is that compozed by two locomotives with have 3 railway cars which transport capacity 27 tons in this system analysis. In practice, the loader can load the materials to truck by 2-3 scoops. The advantages of trucks compared to railway cars and conveyor belt. - They can realize transportation from different points in the mines. - They can transport, are when go out mines and person and materials when go in mines. - They can easily adapt to loaders. - They can work on the right ramp. - They do not need addition of time to go to another point in the mines. Disadvantages of trucks: - They pollute the mine air. We can divide the small metal mining as handwork production systems and mechanical production systems. The explosives are used in all production systems when the working drift is excavated and produce the mining. The holes are made by hand-drill in the management which is produced by human effort. Used gelationit [jelatinit] is a, simple capsule and simple wick for the explosion. The positions of holes aren't certain. The parts of the ore and rock are collected by shovel after ignition; and then they are filled in whell barrow in the undevelopment management, but they are filled to railway car by shovel and they are filled, to transportation railway car from there in the develop management. In the main working drift, the railway cars arrive upto the earth by pushing of human force. The winch foundation is organized if the area inclination is very high. By the technology used in of developed countries, the rocks and ores are holed by Jumbo and the jelatinite tube is filled by explosive. In this work electric capsules are used. The loosen rocks and ores are taken by loaders and transported with ramp to the main transport gallery. In the main transport gallery, transport is done by locomotive and conveyor belt and truck. The rocks and ores are transported up to the earth. If the system have got a well, the skip and lattice systems are used for transportation. Specially in 1950's years in the underground metal mining management, the north Americans used the diesel machine and then working in the small metal mining managements became to easy. The works undergorund became safe and technique. The jumbo driller which is used in the LHD systems are used for the first time in Germany Hansa salt mine. This machine is made by Secoma Lyons. This driller can drill a hole which depht is 3,5 m. In this machine, Deutzun FDL514 Diesel is used. The driller is easier to go from a point of management to another point by diesel machines. But also, this machine is dirted the management. The driller is made which used electric machine for drill and diesel machine for forward in continius years. Now, the ignigation holes can drill as long as 7 m. The air and water spray method is used for this activition. The capacity of the driller is 12-14 m depht and 600-700 m/shift. The driller is can go to 500 m and start to work in ore hour. The holes which are drilled by diesel drillers are filled by different explosive according to the kind of the rocks. The ignigation is realized by using electric capsule. The loader vehiches have got very important role for the efficiency of the underground mining. The loader models are adapted to work underground used for load in LHD (Loading, Houling, Dampling) technology. The loaders which used underground are broke from loin and they have got capacity to turn of from are more narrow and acute curve of the roads. In this vehicles, the operator's cabine is between front and back whells, but nearer to the back whell than front whells. In this way, the xi operator is kept from accident and some clahing in the low galleries. The operator's cabine is side of the vehicle for better right. The dimention (high and width) of the machines are smaller to possible for this machines can adaptive to underground work condition. But the long of this machines can't restrain like another dimentions. The model of loaders are electric and diesel. The advantages of the electric loaders. - The airing of the mine is not important problem for electric loaders. Because electric loaders does not have exhaust. - The efficiency of the electric loaders are higher than other models. - The management outlay is less. - The outlay is lower. - The level of noise is lower. The disadvantages of the electric loaders: - Moving stage is smaller, because their cables are obstade. - Movement of electric loader is slower. - It is necessary to pay more attention for the cables not wear. - The capacity of the diesel loaders are better than electric loaders on the ramp. Lot of diesel machines are cooled by air. But most used of them water for cooling in the mine for safety rules. All machines used in the coal mines must have antigrazitor order. The loaders which incited by two whells are running on 1/9 slope. But loaders which incited by four whells are running on 1/6 slope. The management outlay is greater which measureable as from 300 m in the state of LHD technology which used only loaders. For this reason, the trucks must acord to system. To been a system analysis for transportation; - To become sound is from thin circle shell geometry. xii - To become sound is been by spray concreate, stell-latice, anchorage and steel connection. - Stabilization of this structure must be with the fore sounding work. The purpose of system which contain with this main sections transported the rocks itself. The most efficiency and most safety method which for tunneling is called "The new Austria Method" on the wide of the world. This system is called in the Europe, LHD (Loading, Hauling, Dampling). After then LHD is used in the managements, the managements to win fast and elasticity. The difficult works to give place to mechanics works. Specially in the perpendicular fields, this systems is (LHD) very productive.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Appears in Collections:Maden Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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