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|Title:||Bölgesel kalkınma ve bölgesel dengesizlik ikilemi : GAP örneği|
Sinemillioğlu, Mustafa Oğuz
Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
Urban and Regional Planning
Southeastern Anatolian Project
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Ekonomik, sosyal, kültürel ve coğrafi etmenlerin, doğrudan yada dolaylı olarak neden olduğu bölgelerarası sosyal ve ekonomik dengesizlik başta olmak üzere dengesizlikleri gidermek, disiplinlerarası bir çalışma alanı olan Bölgesel Kalkınma'nın temel amaçlarındandır. Dengesizlikleri gidermek gibi önemli bir amaç, kalkınmanın bir diğer amacı olan, daha 'iyi'nin sunulması hedefiyle çoğu zaman uyuşmamaktadır. Bu uyuşmazlık, 20. yüzyılın önemli olaylarından olan dünya nüfusunun üstel artışı, insanların başarısı yada bölgenin başarısı, sorusunun yansıttığı üretim ilişkilerindeki olumsuz değişim dolayısıyla yüksek tüketim toplumuna geçişin hızlanması gibi nedenlerle büyümektedir. Sınırlı doğal kaynaklar, doğal dengede yapılmış ve yapılmakta olan deformasyona karşın kalkınma kavramının yenilenememesi yada bu alandaki gecikmeler ve dengesizliklerin giderilmesi için yapılan çalışmaların daha çok klasik denebilecek yöntemlerle devam ettirilmesi önemli bir ikilem olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Dünya'nın taşıma kapasitesinin sınırlarına gelmeden, dünyanın kendi kendisini yenileyebilecek bir süreçte, herkes için ortak paydayı aramak, çalışmanın amaçlarından birisidir. Çalışmanın bir diğer amacı, dengesizlik sorununu irdelemek, tanımlamaya çalışmak, kalkınma-dengesizlik ilişkisini yada birlikteliğini, bölgeler arası dengesizlik süreciyle birlikte incelemek ve çözüme giden yollar aramak olarak belirtilebilir. Dünya'da bölgelerarası dengesizlik, diğer bir deyişle ülkeler arasındaki dengesizliğin artışı, ülkelerin kendi bölgeleri arasındaki dengesizliğin artışıyla paralel olarak ilerlemektedir. Bu süreç, Türkiye'de de kendine özgü nedenleri ve farklı ölçeği ile devam etmektedir. Dengesizlik ve Kalkınma ikilemi üzerinde yoğunlaşmış olan çalışma hipotezleri GAP'ın Türkiye'nin bölgeleri arasındaki dengesizliği giderme sürecindeki etkilerini de kapsamaktadır. Örnek Alan Çalışması olarak ele alman GAP, Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi(Bölge)'ndeki doğal kaynakların ülke ekonomisine kazandırılması amacıyla DSİ tarafından başlatılmış olan çalışmaların Bölgedeki geri kalmışlığı azaltmak için düşünülen projelerin birleştirilmesi sonucu olarak oluşmuştur. GAP'ın etkilerini değerlendirmek için yaptığımız çalışmanın bir kısmı, GAP Master Planı'nda belirtilen aşamalardan, birinci aşama öncesi ve sonrasının DİE ve DPT verilerine dayanılarak karşılaştırılması şeklinde olmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda, GAP'ın mühendislik yatırımlarının büyük bir çoğunlukla öncelikli olduğu GAP'ın birinci aşamasında yapılmış yatırımların bölgenin sosya-ekonomik yapısına yeterince yansımadığı görülmektedir. Sonuç olarak; Bölgeler arası dengesizliğin süreklilik gösterdiği durumların fazlalığı, dengesizliğin sürekliliğini gündeme getirmektedir. Azgelişmiş ve Gelişmekte Olan Ülkelerde doğum kontrolü ne kadar Önemli ise Gelişmiş Ülkelerin aşın tüketim alışkanlıklarını sınırlandırmaları da bir okadar önemli görünmektedir. Temel olarak, doğal kaynakların ekolojik bir yöntemle ekonomiye kazandırılmasını amaçlayan GAP'ın, Master Planda tanımlanan çerçevede önemli ve ülke ve bölge dinamiklerini yönlendirebilecek büyüklükte bir proje olduğu, ancak uygulamaların ve sürecin Türkiye'nin projeyi öngörülen süre ve çerçevede tamamlayabilmesinin zor olduğu, buna paralel olarak bölgelerarası dengesizliğin giderilmesi mümkün görülmemektedir. Kısaca ikilem süreklilik arzetmektedir.|
The Dilemma between Regional Development and Regional Disparities: The Case of GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project) One of the main objectives of regional development, as an interdisciplinary field, is to overcome disparities, mainly inter-regional social and economic disparities caused directly or indirectly by economic, social, cultural or geographic agents. The objective of overcoming disparities, which is of great importance, seldom complies with the idea of presenting 'the better', another objective of development. The dilemma is getting greater due to the reasons such as exponential growth of world population, and accelerated shift to mass consumption society because of the negative change in production relationships. Limited natural resources (Goodland, 1995) and not being able to update the concept of development despite deformation done and/or being done in natural balance, and using so-called classical methods in studies in order to overcome delays and disparities in the field are regarded to be an important dilemma. To search for the common ingredients for all the people in a process giving way to innovate itself before coming to the limits of world's load capacity(Meadows et.al., 1992) may be considered the objective öf the study. Questioning the dilemma of disparities and trying to define it and examine the relationship of development and disparity or the coherence of the two and trying to find solutions may be regarded as the other objectives of the study. By questioning the responsibilities falling not only to the lot of the society but also to the lot of each and every individual, we will question the disparity between regions, one of the main obstacles to maintain at least an acceptable living standards for every one. The method used in the study is to define the concepts of development and disparities and to question the relationships between those concepts considering the process of development and to question the process of development and to question the process of disparities in Turkey with a case-study which is evaluating the first stage of Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP). In the Case-study, we will try to examine the disparities between regions in Turkey taking in to account the influence of GAP on the development and disparities in Southeastern Anatolia Region, before and after the first stage of GAP. A region is a geographical area that meaningfully may be regarded as a coherent entity from the viewpoint of description, analysis, administration, planning or policy. Various types of regions are distinguished in the literature, e.g. homogeneous or functional regions.... Another typology distinguishes natural (ecological or environmental) regions, economic regions and administrative (or political) regions (Nijkamp and Bergh, 1990). Planning is oriented predominantly toward the future, is deeply concerned with the relation of goals to collective decisions and strives for comprehensiveness in policy and program. Wherever these models of thought are applied, there is a presumption that planning is being done (Glasson 1975, p. 5). XI Planning, although described as it is the way of human-being thinking, and applying, the deformation of world's ecological balance and the growth of inequalities between the people may be seen as a dilemma. The reasons for the dilemma may be thought to be changed production relations, technological, geographical differences and 'ego' of human-being rather than the science of planning and regional planing. Within advanced and underdeveloped countries, regional planning strategies tend to concentrate on spatial elements, such as infrastructure, population distribution, and spatial interaction. They failed to be successful when the underlying social and economic interactions and conditions changed. Spatial policies cannot achieve their objectives unless they work in concert with sectoral and macro-economic policies. The birth of regional development as a field of study is often dated as 1958, corresponding with the independent publication of Gunnar Myrdal's Economic theory and underdeveloped regions and Albert Hirschman's The strategy of economic development (Malecki 1991, p. 25). In our world, where "action" occurred first, and man put thought in to practice soon after action, man wants to develop trying to continually define the places and/or region which guides life. Regions which are created by different geographical areas, different natural resources and different types of human-being with an ongoing process, are in a transformation process and progress, it brings together that the theory of this process should be renewed. Disparities, as a reason of production relations which has been occurred in different geographical areas and different natural resources in those areas reflecting to the settlements, while the society shifted to a capitalist society from a feudal society and then to mass consumption society but also became a main agent in relations between societies. Myrdal and Hirschman claim that economic development inevitably finds life within regional difference and disparities. Erkan(1987) argues that those influences increases disparities at the beginning of developmental process but later they balance disparities. On the contrary, "Development gap between the industrialized and developing countries has continued to widen during the last few decades"(UNCED, 1992). "... Regional disparities in the European Community(EC) are obvious, and are attributable equally to the international component and to the regional disparities within the countries. After ten years of the regional development program there were enormous disparities between the Member States in 1985, both by unemployment rate and by per capita GDP"(Atalık 1990 p. 11). In fact, Glassons's(1993) work supports this idea. Regional disparities are greater in less developed countries, and smaller in the more developed; over time, regional disparities increase in the less developed countries and decrease in the more developed(Alonso 1968). The process of USA and Turkey is a good example of this idea. To sum up, regional disparities reflecting on place because of the combination and of different processes and formations tends to grow due to man's direct or indirect XU influence. Disparities between regions, on one hand, keeps its traditional characteristics, on the other hand, it takes new characteristics. Technology is a new aspect of it. The fact that new concepts such as globalisation which is very humanistic in content have recently come to agenda implies that man is in search for getting rid of disparities. However, that nature has been spoiled in the degree that it is impossible to recycle affects the gap between developed nations and developing nations in a negative way. It can be easily said that the problems man confront are a consequence of population by comparing population pyramids and levels of development of world countries. Man's population on earth was about one billion until the nineteenth century, but two centuries later it became more than five billion increasing five times. One more result of population is migration, can be described as it is a consequence of man's search for meeting demands, which spoils the present situation there increasing the demand for service. This demand breaks the normal order of service because it appears at an unexpected time and rate. When we have a look at the history of economic development theory, we have Smith and Marx coming first. Smith's theory, which aims maximizing production for market is open to criticism in that it does not take some sources such as oxygen, air and water pollution which do not take any direct part in production as cost of factors and that it does not regard production as a goal or a medium obviously and that it takes unlimited production as the main point and lastly that it regards disparities as the natural outcome. Marx, who takes economic growth and production relations far more differently analyses the structure of labour-capital relations which other economists for example Smith's to name one, do not take in to accounts. "The initial prosperity of the majority of third world countries was based on the export of minerals, raw materials and foodstuffs.... Economic growth was concentrated on a relatively narrow range of products and was restricted to a small number of urban centres"(Richardson and Townroe, 1986, p. 652). "Technology is central to regional change, positive and negative, and to economic change, job- creating and job-destroying. It is the most obvious cause and effect of the cumulative wealth of rich nations"(Malecki 1991, p. 6-7). Asking the questions like "What 'really1, is technology? The ability to solve any problem? The source of all evil? The physical manifestation of the inventive genius of human kind?... The control of nature by humanity?" (Meadows et al. 1992, p. 163), these authorities start this discussion giving priority to human mentality, and perhaps giving it higher rank and stress that humanity do not try well enough for a dynamic balance. Sustainable Development is defined as the development meeting all needs of today without destroying future generations opportunities(WCED 1987, p. 8, Blowers, 1992) and also as an ecological concept(Timmer 1991) guiding planning of economic development James et al., 1989). The development not in harmony with environment is bound to lose its meaning with in the process weakening. Firstly development means environmental quality, fresh air, safe drinking, running water, which are for bettering our lives and development Milpurposes this process. Despite this, if benefits due to income rise is balanced by the cost of pollution because of industrialization, one can not perceive this as development. Firstly, environmental pollution because of industrialization, one can not perceive this as development. Secondly, environmental pollution will lessen efficiency(WB, 1992). Despite the thesis stated above, developed countries pollute their environments inevitably because they are industrialized and high consumer countries, while less developed countries, perhaps because of less development as their names imply, pollute their environments. Another example, "before humans invented agriculture there were 6 billion hectares of forest on earth. Now there are 4 billion, only 1,5 billion of which are undistributed primary forest. Half of that forest loss has occurred between 1950 and 1990"(Meadows et al 1992, p. 57). Man, who is both cause and effect of almost everything on Earth, is also the cause and effect of dilemma of development and disparities. Further more, as Marx(1986, pi 84) describes, human-being, since he stepped on Earth, has always been a consumer being producer or not and is bound to be so. Chadwick(1987), who regards change of population as a main factor in urbanization, states that economic activity is a base in guiding and placement of enterpreneurship and that so population is a guide in choosing places. Examine environmental indicators belonging to countries of various income groups in different geographical parts of the world, one may very well see that 'safe water' and sufficient healthy conditions, which are considered the main indicators of urbanization, increases in proportion to per capita income and that, doing so, indicators effecting environmental health and natural balance in a negative way, such as per capita SCh, waste materials, CCh, increases in proportion to per capita income(WRI et.al. 1996, p. 19). All in all, it can be said that, disparities is becoming more and more important owing to the cause and effect of development process. Exponential growth of population in Less Developed(LD) and Developing Countries(DC), and mass consumption in Industrialized Countries(IC) take part actively and inactively together with other multiple factors such as technology and urbanization in the process of regional development. The fact that man, who has always been active in terms of evolution and changing production relations, in his struggle to meet his own vital needs, has wanted the more and better led to the discussion of the concept of sustainability, a concept widely discussed nowadays. While the man tends to explain some concepts such as GNP and per capita income by some new concepts such as Human Development Index(HDI) in the science of economy, where winds of change blow, there arises the fact of consumer man(Marx, 1986) stemming from man's sociological base, which forms one of the most important parts of the dilemma that man aims overcoming disparities or decreasing it in development process. Disparities between the regions on Earth, to put it in other way disparities between countries, increases in parallel to the increase within own regions of countries. This process goes on in turkey possessing reasons peculiar to Turkey and a different scale. For example, according to Mutlu(1992, p.33-34): The most important regional problem is by far income inequalities within regions. What has given rise to disparities within regions is Turkey's socio-cultural and socio political structure as well as lack of infrastructure and low level of education. As stated by Atalık(1990), the distribution of GDP by provinces show that there is an obvious disparities between regions and that there is a growth in disparities. It can be seen that there was an objective of development of all parts of the country and of overcoming disparities between regions. "Regional Planning and development in Turkey was a new field at the beginning of 1960s when the First National Development Plan was issued and based fundamentally on sector studies and surveys of a number of branches of activities without recourse to area development methods. Since 1963, all the five-year planning periods have adopted this approach except GAP (Southeastern Anatolia Project) approach in recent years"(Atalık 1990, p. 13). Stating that Regional Development was perceived as decreasing disparities between regions, SPO(State Planning Organization, 1990) explains that, to reach this end, priority regions in terms of development were put in practice but without getting the desired results in the balance of industrial distribution in the regions. As a result, Turkey is yet to solve the dilemma of development and disparities, like many other countries, because of what Turkey has had due to her historical process. On one hand Turkey tries to find the way by the influence of shared process and problems in the world, and Turkey is bound to solve problems peculiar to Turkey over time, on the other hand, to reach this end Turkey is to overcome two obstacles. First, possibly to be drafted away by the new formations in the world, second, the very obstacles Turkey herself created in the process of arguing about problems. What delays overcoming the problems stated above is Turkey's not taking a firm position to make decisions although Turkey has had many breakthroughs in many fields. We can name other problems Turkey have in overcoming problem concerning the dilemma of development and disparities as follows: High birth rate, although the ratio of it tends to decrease, decreasing share of education and health in GNP, the fact that there are few decision makers in making use of sources and that these decisions are not discussed well enough, perceiving industry only as increasing production to make a lot of money in each and every condition. Accordingly, the basic hypotheses of this work are as follows:.. Although GAP can be thought of being a Regional Plan, a plan prepared for the less developed regions and/or Regions rich in raw materials and natural resources, the on going process in GAP shows that it is going to be just an irrigation and energy project. It seems that GAP which will encourage Turkey's development by supplying raw materials and natural resources to the Energy and Agro-industry, will not have an important effect on decreasing regional disparities. The delay that started in GAP works will have a chain reaction in a high percentage rate. The permanency of Regional disparities comes out in ongoing process of GAP as well, although there are lots of plans, projects, programs applied in order to decrease regional disparities. GAP which is taken as a case-study, initiated as the result of combination works done by State Hydrological Organization (DSİ) to utilize natural resources in Southeastern Anatolia in the country's economy and of projects of decreasing lack of development in the region. "The water development aspects of GAP includes 13 main irrigation and energy projects, seven of which are in the lower Euphrates sub-basin and six in the Tigris sub-basin. There are 22 dams, 19 hydropower plants, and irrigation systems to irrigate 1.7 million ha of land"(GAP BKİ 1996, p.21). GAP Region is defined as the jurisdiction of nine provinces, located in south east of Turkey, covering the land area of 73,863 km2 corresponding to 9.5% of Turkey's total. The total population at the 1990 census was 5,158,013 person accounting 9.13% with an increasing ratio since 1945. All provinces in the region are net out- migrating areas. The GAP region is one of the least developed regions in Turkey, and its per capita GDP is around 50% percent of Turkey(DPT 1990). The GAP region at present faces a range of problems which are interacting with one another. Those are; Low income level due to immature economic structure, Out migration from villages to larger cities in the region and out of the region(DPT 1990, p. 2. 4). The reason listed above, are mainly problems as well as the reasons of disparities formation. One of the important section of the study which is done to examine the effects of GAP, was carried out by comparison of the stages stated in GAP Master Plan with pre-first stage and post-first stage in terms of not only with the data of GAP BKİ data, but also with the data of State Statistic Organization(SSO) and State Planning Organization(SPO). At the and of the study, it is understood that investments, made in first stage in GAP Region, where engineering investments are given priority have not been reflected well enough on socio-economic structure of the GAP Region. XVI While there is an increase in the Province of Adiyaman(33%), Mardin(%10) and, there is a decrease in Diyarbakir(%4.84), Gaziantep(%2.40) and Siirt(%28,28). Batman and the Şırnak recorded the lowest two values for 1996 when compared to other provinces in the region. There is no any significance changings in Şanlıurfa. Newly promoted to the provinces, except Gaziantep, are at the very bottom line. Our study, parallel to SPO's 1996, Socio-Economic Development Rank in that all GAP region provinces but Gaziantep are at the very bottom line. To conclude, the high number of disparities continuity between regions imply the continuity of disparities. Birth control in LD and DC is as important as curbing IC's mass consumption habit. It is observed that Regional Disparities is increasing not only between regions of countries but also between the countries. The cause of disparities between regions in Turkey seems to be socio-political structure rather than level of economic structure and technology. The fact that the State, generally speaking, has no policy of education and that State has a very little budget of education in decreasing trend shows that there is almost nothing to do about it. In Turkey, where disparities between region is openly accepted plans and programs are put forward to solve the problem(SPO, 1979) and where central government is overwhelmingly powerful, not having a balanced distribution of investments is meaningful and worth thinking deeply over it, moreover this stiation is an important indicator of the dilemma. It is more than clear that organization is as important as capital in regional development. Another observation in Turkey's process is that, physical planning has been placed on before regional development and regional planning. GAP which is the most important regional project in Turkey seems to have no effect on the dilemma.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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