Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14028
Title: Süre Uzatımı ve Ek Ödemelerin KİK ve FIDIC Anahtar Teslimi Sözleşmeleri Çerçevesinde İncelenmesi
Other Titles: Review Of Extension Of Time And Additional Payment In The Public Procurement Authority (KIK) And Fidic Turnkey Contracts
Authors: İlter, Deniz
Aydın, Didem
10077735
İnşaat Mühendisliği
Civil Engineering
Keywords: Kık
Fıdıc
Sözleşme
Süre Uzatımı
Ek Ödeme
Hak Talebi
Kik
Fidic
Contract
Extension Of Time
Additional Payment
Claim
Issue Date: 24-Jun-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: İnşaat sektörü, diğer sektörlerle karşılaştırıldığında ülke ekonomisine daha fazla katkıda bulunan önemli sektörlerden biridir. Karmaşık yapısı olan ve projelerin tek olması nedeniyle de kendine özgü bir sektördür. İçerisinde mimari, elektrik, mekanik ve statik gibi birden fazla disiplin barındırır. Günümüzde inşaat projelerinin ölçekleri giderek büyümekte ve gelişen teknolojiyle birlikte mega projeler inşa edilmektedir.   İnşaat sektöründe herhangi bir projenin başarılı olabilmesi kalite, zaman ve maliyet açısından başarıyla tamamlanmasına bağlıdır.Projelerin hedeflenen kalitede, sürede ve maliyetle bitirilebilmesinde sözleşmelerin ve içerdikleri prosedürlerin rolü büyüktür. Sözleşmeler, inşaat projlerinde yer alan tüm taraflara veyapım sürecinin her aşamasına cevap verecek şekilde ve özen gösterilerek hazırlanırsa, uygulanan proje belirlenen hedefe ulaşacaktır.  Sözleşmeler, yapılacak olan işe göre özel hazırlanır. İnşaat projelerinin ortak ve tekrarlanan özelliklerinden öğrenilen dersler ile yıllar içinde süreci kolaylaştırmak için standart (tip) sözleşme formları hazırlanmıştır. Standart sözleşme formları,projenin uygulandığı çevredeki yasal yapıyauygun olarak hazırlanır. Türk inşaat sektöründe, kamu projelerinde Kamu İhale Kurumu'nun hazırladığı Anahtar Teslim Götürü Bedel Sözleşme ve Birim Fiyatlı tip sözleşmeler ve uluslararasıprojelerde FIDIC (Müşavir Mühendisler Uluslararası Federasyonu) Sözleşmeleri en sık kullanılan standart sözleşme formlarıdır. FIDIC sözleşmelerinden proje türüne göre Kırmızı Kitap (Yapım), Sarı Kitap (Tasarım-Yapım) ve Gümüş Kitap (EPC) sözleşmeleri yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır.  Sözleşmenin imzalandığı sırada öngörülemeyen durumların oluşması, süre ve bütçekısıtları, belirsizlikler, olağanüstü koşullar ve diğer riskler sonucunda oluşan anlaşmazlıklar proje sürecinin bir parçası olarak görülmektedir.Bu anlaşmazlıkların büyük uyuşmazlıklara dönüşmemesi için yapım sürecinde hak taleplerinin hızlı ve adil bir şekilde çözülmesi, inşaat projelerinin başarıyla sonuçlanmasındaki önemli faktörlerden biridir. Hak taleplerinin zamanında çözülmemesi projede gecikme, maliyet artışı, motivasyon eksikliği, taraflar arası ilişkilerin bozulması gibi olumsuzlara neden olmaktadır. Bu olumsuzluklar tarafları uyuşmazlık çözümü için yargı yoluna itmekte ve bu durumda projenin taraflara maliyeti daha da büyümektedir. Bu tez çalışmasında inşaat projelerinde en sık görülen hak talebi ve uyuşmazlık konuları olan süre uzatımı ve ek ödemeler ele alınmış, ve bu konuların Türk inşaat sektöründe en sık kullanılan iki standart sözleşme türü olan KIK tip sözleşmeleri ve FIDIC sözleşmeleri çerçevesinde incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.  FIDIC ve KIK'te süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme süreç ve prosedürlerini karşılaştırırken sözleşme tipinden kaynaklanan farklılıkların bertaraf edilmesi için benzer kapsamda iki sözleşmenin ele alınmasına karar verilmiş ve böylece FIDIC Gümüş Kitap (Anahtar Teslim Sözleşme) ile KİK Anahtar Teslim Götürü Bedel Sözleşmelerinde(ATGBS) süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme konularının işleyişleri karşılaştırılmıştır.  Tezin birinci bölümü giriş bölümüdür. Bu bölümde tez çalışmasının amacı, arka planı ve yöntemi açıklanmaktadır.  Tezin ikinci bölümü 'Sözleşme İdaresinde Süre Uzatımı ve Ek Ödeme Talepleri' başlıklı bölümdür. Bu bölümde sözleşme idaresi ve standart sözleşme formları tanımları, hak talepleri ve uyuşmazlık çözüm yaklaşımları ile sözleşmelerde süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme talepleri genel olarak işlenmiştir. Tezin üçüncü bölümü 'KİK'te süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme başlıklı bölümdür. Bu bölümde ilk olarak, Türk hukuku ve Borçlar Kanunu açısından inşaat sözleşmeleri incelenmiştir. Sözleşmelerin ve YİGŞ'nin genel olarak tanımları yapılmıştır. Sonrasında literatürdeki kaynaklardan yararlanılarak KİK tip sözleşmelerindeki eksikler belirlenmiş vesüre uzatımı, ek ödeme konularınınKIK ATGBS'deki işleyişi açıklanmıştır.  Tezin dördüncü bölümü 'FIDIC Sözleşmelerinde Süre Uzatımı ve Ek Ödeme' başlıklı bölümdür. Bu bölümde FIDIC sözleşmelerinin gelişimi, tarihçesi ve türleri açıklanmıştır. Türkiye'de FIDIC sözleşmelerini kullanan bazı projelere örnek verilmiştir. Ardından FIDIC sözleşmelerinde süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme konuları işlenmiştir.  Tezin beşinci bölümü 'Karşılaştırma ve KİK sözleşmeleri için öneriler' başlıklı bölümdür. Bu bölümde öncelikle FIDIC Gümüş Kitaptaki genel koşullar, maddeler halinde sıralanarak KIKATGBS ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Süre uzatımı ve ek ödeme konularıyla ilgili her iki sözleşme dokümanlarının içerik karşılaştırması yapılıp, KIK ATGBS için biçimsel ve içeriksel iyileştirme önerileri sunulmuştur. Tezin altıncı bölümü sonuç başlıklı bölümdür. Bu bölümde çalışmanın temel amacı doğrultusunda ortaya çıkan sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir.
The construction sector is one  of the important sectors, which contributes more to the economy of a country when compared to other sectors,  It has a complex structure and due to the fact that the projects are single, it is a distinctive sector  It incorporates more than one disciplines such as architecture, electricity, mechanics and statistics.  In our days, the scale of construction projects progressively increases and mega projects are constructed together with advancing technology.     The success of any projects in the construction sector, depends on its successful completion in terms of quality, time and cost. The role of the contracts and the procedures they include is essential in the completion of projects in targeted quality, time and cost.   If the contracts are prepared with due diligence in a way to respond to all stages of performance and parties to the construction projects then the project implemented shall reach the designated target.   The contracts are specifically prepared according to the job to be performed.  Standard contract forms (type) have been prepared with the lessons learned in the course of years as well common and recurrent features of construction projects, to ease the process.  Standard contract forms are prepared in compliance with the legal jurisdiction, where the project is performed. Turn Key Lump Sum Contracts and Type Contracts with Unit Prices, which were prepared by the Public Tender Institution for public projects and FIDIC (International Federation of Consulting Engineers) contracts for international projects  are standard contract forms most often used by the Turkish construction sector. Among FIDIC contracts, Red Book (Construction), Yellow Book (Design-Construction) and Silver Book (EPC) contracts are widely used as per the project type.   Disagreements arising from unpredictable circumstances at the signature of the contract, restrictions of time and budget, uncertainties, extraordinary conditions and other risks are considered a part of the project process. Fast and equitable resolution of claims in order to avoid bigger conflicts in the process of construction  is one of the most important factors in successful achievement of construction projects.   Failure to resolve claims on time causes negativities such as delays in the project, increases in cost, lack of motivation, corruption of relationship between the parties.  These negativities push the parties towards judicial resolution of the conflicts, which in turn increases the cost of project to the parties.   This thesis treats time extensions and additional payments, which are the most often encountered subjects of claims and conflicts in construction projects and it aims to examine these subjects within the frame of Public Tender Institution type contracts and FIDIC contracts, which are the two of most often used standard contract types in the Turkish construction sector.   The resolution was to handle two contracts with similar scope in order to eliminate differentiation originating from contract types while comparing process and procedures of time extension  and  additional payments in FIDIC and Public Tender Institution contracts thus the functions of time extension  and  additional payments subjects in FIDIC Silver Book (Turnkey Contract) and KIK Turnkey Lump Sum Contract (ATGBS) were dealt.  The first chapter of the thesis is the introduction chapter. This chapter introduces the aim, back ground and method of the thesis.  This thesis treats time extensions and additional payments, which are the most often encountered subjects of claims and conflicts in construction projects and it aims to examine these subjects within the frame of Public Tender Institution type contracts and FIDIC contracts, which are the two of most often used standard contract types in the Turkish construction sector.  The differences and similarities between FIDIC Silver Book (Turnkey Contract) and Turnkey Lump Sum Contract (ATGBS) from KIK contracts are set forth because they are contracts used in lump sum tenders.  The study aims to propose formal and contextual solutions by identifying the shortages and required improvement areas in KIK Turnkey Lump Sum Contracts.  The thesis study is realized through a literature review starting  with standard construction contracts globally narrowed at KIK and FIDIC contracts specifically and focusing on time extensions and additional payment subjects.In this context international databases published on Construction Management were screened and articles, thesis and contract documents accessed were put in use.  The comparative analysis of standard contracts, which were dealt following a literature review, is performed.  The second chapter of the thesis is the chapter entitled "Time Extensions and Additional Payment Requests in Contract Administration"  The chapter deals  with definitions of contract management and standard contract forms, resolution of claims and conflicts approaches as well as time extensions and additional payment requests in contracts globally.The preparation of contracts is a matter to be sensitive substantially.The contracts must be prepared in details to quicken the solution of conflicts encountered during the job at the same time ensure that the mutual requests of the parties are fulfilled as they were expected and promised.The aim of the contracts is to protect equally the rights of the parties, distribute equitably the risks and benefits between the parties and create a balanced situation.According to Thomas (2001) time extension conditions are added to a contract to the detriment of both the contractor and employer.  However, they are in favor of the employer first of all.  If the employer causes an extension without such clause, the conditions of termination on time and material indemnification of the employer shall cease to be binding for the contractor. The methods of delay analysis are used in the grant of time extension to the contractor. Although the time added to the completion term looks like an award, it cancels the rights of an employer to apply material indemnifications and fines. Such type of an award does not mean a right to extra payment for a term extended automatically in general. Such type of a payment is guaranteed in time extensions, where the contractor is obliged to maintain construction yard and technical office continuation.  In such an event, the contractor is obliged to make an additional payment request . The third chapter of the thesis is the chapter entitled "Time extension in KIK and additional payment" This chapter examines first of all the construction contracts with regards to the Turkish law and Code of Obligations. The contracts and General Specifications of Construction Works (YIGŞ) are defined globally. The General Specifications of Construction Jobs (YIGŞ) is similar to the General Specifications of Public Works entered into effect in 1936. The General Specifications of Construction Jobs (YIGŞ) are the specifications, which aim to establish the general conditions to be applied by the Employer Administrations in the performance of  jobs in every type of construction jobs subject to the Code of Public Tender Contracts. In construction jobs, the contracts made from the total amount proposed by the candidate for the completed job on the basis of implementation projects and relevant place lists, are Turnkey Lump Sum Contracts (ATGBS). In the third chapter, following these definitions, the shortages in KİK type contracts are identified through sources in literature and the functions of subjects such as time extension, additional payment in Public Tender Institution Turnkey Lump Sum Contracts (KİK ATGBS). The contractor is obliged to notify in writing the administration about the circumstance at the origin of time extension request, details and effects of the event and how much would be the extension within 20 days from the date of event and have the authorities certify the occurrence of force major with duly prepared documents. In case of additional payments, the instruction in article 14 of the Accounting Standards of Turkey 11 and the process of conflicts are given.      The forth chapter of the thesis, is the chapter titled "Time Extension and Additional Payments in FIDIC Contracts" The chapter deals with the evolution, history and types of FIDIC contracts FIDIC is established in 1913 at Lausanne city of Swiss by national independent unions of consultants and engineers and it is translated into Turkish as "The International Federation of Consulting Engineers"  At present FIDIC has 99 members. The Union of Turkish Consulting Engineers and Architects (TMMMB) adhered to FIDIC in 1987.  FIDIC has prepared different manuals taking into account project, responsibility and design differences.  There are 8 books: Red, Yellow, Green, Silver, Gold, Turquoise, Pink and White. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipe Line Project, Istanbul -Ankara Motorway Project, Irrigation Channel Construction of Sivas -Erzincan cities and Istanbul Alleviation of Seismic Risk and Improvement of Readiness in Emergency Project are stated as examples of project using FIDIC contracts in Turkey.  Then the chapter treats time extension and additional payment subjects in FIDIC contracts. The Contractor is obliged to notify the subject to the Engineer within 28 days in order to request time extension and additional payment.  Otherwise his right to time extension shall be completely lost as per article 20.1.  The fifth chapter of the thesis, is the chapter entitled " Comparison and Propositions for Public Tender Institution (KIK) Contracts"  This  chapter  enumerates per items the general conditions in FIDIC Silver Book principally and compares them to Public Tender Institution Turnkey Lump Sum Contracts (KIK ATBGS).  The contents of both contract documents on time extensions and additional payments are compared as well as formal and contextual improvement propositions are presented for KIK ATGBS. The study made by İlter and others  in (2014) sets forth a comparison table between Red Book, Yellow Book and Silver Book from FIDIC types on time extensions and additional payments matters and the thesis makes use of this table. FIDIC contracts offer for application books, general conditions, guide for the preparation of special conditions and offer letter, contract agreements and conflict settlement agreement forms transformed into a book.  Thus we can say that FIDIC contracts are a useful guide.  The contracts in our country refer to such institutions as General Specifications of Construction Jobs, Code of Public Tender Contracts and Code of Obligations etc. This is causes a lot of time loss. We can propose this formally. As for content, since there is not any independent institutions in Turkey like FIDIC, the contract clauses of Public Tender Institutions protect the employer side, predominantly.   The sixth chapter of the thesis is the chapter entitled conclusion. This chapter evaluates the conclusions emerging in line with the basic aim of the study. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the functioning of time extensions and additional payments in Silver Book and KİK ATGBS and contribute to the amelioration of Public Tender Institution legislation with propositions introduced.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14028
Appears in Collections:İnşaat Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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