Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14023
Title: Elektrik Ark Fırını Cürufunun Yapay Agrega Olarak Esnek Üstyapılarda Çimento Bağlayıcılı Granüler Temel Tabakasında Kullanılabilirliğinin İncelenmesi
Other Titles: Investigation Of Usage Of Electric Arc Furnace Slag As Artificial Aggregate In Cement Stabilized Base Course Of Flexible Pavement
Authors: İyinam, Şükrüye
Seren, Irmak Sema
10077952
İnşaat Mühendisliği
Civil Engineering
Keywords: Cüruf
Slag
Issue Date: 25-Jun-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Artan dünya nüfusu ve teknolojideki gelişmeler ile birlikte endüstriyel faaliyetler sonucu ortaya çıkan atık miktarı her geçen gün artmakta ve çevreyi olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Ayrıca mevcut kaynakların da tükenmeye başlaması, atıkların alternatif bir hammadde kaynağı olarak değerlendirilerek geri kazanımına ilişkin çalışmaları yaygınlaştırmıştır. Özellikle fazla miktarda hammadde gerektiren yol inşaatlarında demir çelik üretiminde ortaya çıkan cürufun kullanılması, çevreye olan katkısının yanı sıra etkin kaynak kullanımı ve ekonomik bir çözüm sunmaktadır. Çalışmada, elektrik ark fırınları ile çelik üretimi yapan tesislerde atık madde olarak açığa çıkan Elektrik Ark Fırını (EAF) cürufunun yapay agrega olarak esnek üstyapılarda Çimento Bağlayıcılı Granüler Temel (ÇBGT) tabakasında kullanılabilirliği incelenmiştir. Doğal agrega ile karşılaştırmalı olarak Karayolları Teknik Şartnamesi (KTŞ) 2013’de belirtilen standartlara göre deneyler yapılmıştır. Öncelikle yapılan araştırmanın önemi ve amacı açıklanmıştır. Ardından esnek üstyapıları oluşturan tabakalar hakkında genel bilgiler verilmiştir. Ayrıca demir çelik üretimi ile ilgili üretim aşamaları ve çeşitleri anlatılmış, dünyada ve Türkiye’de demir çelik sektörünün durumu sayısal veriler ile açıklanmıştır. Demir çelik üretiminde ortaya çıkan cürufun oluşumu, çeşitleri ve özellikleri hakkında birtakım bilgiler verilmiş, cürufların çeşitlerine göre kullanım alanları anlatılmıştır. Daha sonra EAF cürufunun esnek üstyapılarda ÇBGT tabakasında kullanımının araştırılması yapılmıştır. KTŞ 2013’e göre ÇBGT tabakasında kullanılacak agregaların sahip olması gereken fiziksel özellikleri ile tabakanın stabilitesi hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. EAF cürufu ve doğal agreganın fiziksel özelliklerinin belirlenmesine ilişkin yapılan özgül ağırlık ve su emme, Los Angeles, yassılık indeksi, organik madde içeriği, metilen mavisi, kil topağı ve dağılabilen tane oranı, hava tesirlerine karşı dayanıklılık, likit limit ve plastik limit deneyleri anlatılmıştır. Farklı granülometrilerdeki ÇBGT tabakasına uygulanan Modifiye Proktor ve CBR deneyleri ile aynı karışımlara farklı oranlarda çimento ekleyerek hazırlanan numunelerin serbest basınç dayanımı deneyleri anlatılmıştır. Yapılan deneylerden elde edilen bulgular, verilen KTŞ 2013 limit değerleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Son olarak, deneysel çalışmalar sonucu elde edilen bulgulara göre değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. EAF cürufunun esnek üstyapılarda ÇBGT tabakasında kullanılabilirliği incelenmiştir. EAF cürufunun yol inşaatında kullanımı ile ilgili önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
As a result of industrial activities along with increasing world population and technological developments, unserviceable materials named as “waste” increase day by day and affect environment negatively. Various researches conducted associated with waste management topics in order to reduce generated and recycled wastes. Commencement of extinction of the current resources, recycling of waste and evaluating as an alternative raw material source have extended the studies. Arising from production quantity in million degrees and generated as a result of industrial activities, recycling with raw material source usage in different industries, waste disposal, cost reduction and efficient source usage constitutes an importance. Iron and steel industry products are constituted fundamental raw materials of industrial sectors. It is not only been vital part of the society, but also strategically significance from the point of the countries in sectors such as construction, infrastructure, machinery and automotive with great strength and durability. Steel production is growing day by day all over the world. Only in 2014, 34 million tons steel produced in Turkey while 1,662 million tons produced around the world. Both in Turkey and in the world, 70% of steel productions is performed with EAF furnace. Waste and by products are comprised 90% of slag, dust and sludge in iron and steel industry. Iron and steel slag constitutes most of the waste product of iron and steel production. Nowadays, production of 1 ton liquid steel generates 169 kg Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) slag, 275 kg blast furnace slag in integrated facilities and 126 kg basic furnace slag. Every year, over 400 million tons iron and steel slag is produced around the world. In the light of this data, considered that steel productions and their increments, obtained slag could be regained as a raw material source for various industries. One of the sectors that used a major level of raw material is construction sector. Especially, in road constructions in which extra raw material needed, 95% of materials constitutes from aggregate. Consumed aggregate sources increase demand for new aggregate mines (fields) each day passing. This situation also results in an increase of costs. The use of iron and steel slag as a road construction material benefit not only the environment, but also the financial way. Due to the very high costs for landfilling, many solutions have found for recycling. Thereby, use of slag generated during production of iron and steel on road construction besides its contribution to the environment, with efficient source usage it presents an economic solution. While iron and steel production proceeding on integrated facilities, some solid wastes occur such as blast furnace slag, steel slag, coal ash and dust. Disposing of these solid wastes may cause soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution. Emerged slags seems like “waste” in iron and steel industry, have constituted major part of the waste and by products. Slags defined as marketable products along with increment their usage area. New execution areas enhanced while growth in economical, environmental and social advantages of slag use. Iron and steel slag is being marketable product with increasing usage possibilities. Slag is widely used in construction sector especially in cement paste, concrete mixture, hydraulic structures and road constructions. Steel plant slag is considered to be very suitable for road constructions based on strength, stability, abrasion, porosity and water absorption properties. Some investigations are being made about steel plant slag if it can be used as sub-base material in road constructions with its great strength properties. In this study, availability of EAF slag, which is generated as waste product of iron and steel production, was investigated as artificial aggregate in cement stabilized base course of flexible pavement. All of the experiments have done comparatively with natural aggregate within the scope of Republic of Turkey General Directorate of Highways Technical Specification published in 2013. First of all, importance and goal of this study were explained literally. Then, general information about flexible pavement layers was asserted. Also, significant processing steps and types of iron and steel production, which are blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace, were explicated. Iron and steel industry was revealed with numerical data both for Turkey and world-wide. Some information have given about generation of slag which is derived from iron and steel production, types of slags, physical and chemical properties of slags. Their generation stages and reactions are given in 4 main topics as blast furnace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag, electric arc furnace slag and secondary metallurgical slag. General usage area and usage ratios were stated in terms of slag types. Where the experimental studies handled after this section, the usage of EAF slag was investigated in cement stabilized base course of flexible pavement. Certain information detailed about physical properties and layer stabilities of aggregate can be used in cement stabilized base course according to Republic of Turkey General Directorate of Highways Technical Specification published in 2013. Numerous experiments performed such as density and absorption of aggregate test, Los Angeles abrasion and impact test, flatness index test, determination of organic matter test, methylene blue test, clay lumps and friable particles in aggregates test, durability of freeze effect test, liquid limit test and plastic limit test to determine physical properties of EAF slag and natural aggregate within the scope of Republic of Turkey General Directorate of Highways Technical Specification published in 2013. As a consequence, all assessments were made according to experimental test results. Usage of EAF slag was investigated in cement stabilized base course of flexible pavement. If slag is carefully treated beginning at the EAF furnace to the slag plant, it can be a useful and competitive product for road construction and several other applications. Certain suggestions were made about usage of EAF slag in road constructions.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14023
Appears in Collections:İnşaat Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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