Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/12487
Title: Orta Anadolu Abdalları Ses İcracılığında Register Ve Şarkıcı Formantı Bulguları
Other Titles: Register And Singer’s Formant Findings In Middle Anatolian Abdal Singing
Authors: Parlak, Erol
Saruhan, Şahin
326690
Müzikoloji ve Müzik Teorisi
Musicology  and Theory of Music
Keywords: Müzik
Abdallar
Bozlaklar
Müzik
Müzik eserleri
Orta Anadolu bölgesi
Sanatçılar
Ses perdeleri
Ses özellikleri
İnsan sesi
Şarkı söyleme
Music
Abdals
Bozlaks
Music
Music works
Central Anatolian region
Artists
Registers
Sound charecteristics
Human voice
Singing
Publisher: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Abstract: Bu çalışmada, bozlak türü vokal icrasında bulunan ve geleneksel aktarım yolu dışında herhangi bir formal eğitim sürecinden geçmemiş yedi tenor Abdal şarkıcının EGG kayıtları ve stüdyo ses kayıtları register ve Şarkıcı Formantı'na ilişkin çeşitli değişkenler açısından analiz edilmek üzere alınmış, elde edilen bulgular istatistiksel olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmamızda Şarkıcı Formantı'nın Orta Anadolu Abdal Şarkıcılığı'nda mevcut olup olmadığına ilişkin yapılan analiz sürecince, Şarkıcı Formantı'na ilişkin ilgili literatürde mevcut teorik yaklaşım ve yöntemlerden yararlanılarak, formantların spektral konum ve dağılım genişliklerinin yanı sıra, Şarkıcı Formantı'nın tenor ses sınıfı açısından oluşabileceği frekans alanındaki enerji yoğunluğu kriteri de değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmuştur. Orta Anadolu Abdal Şarkıcılığı'nda hangi register ya da registerlerin kullanıldığına ilişkin yapılan analizlerde de, yine literatürde sıklıkla kullanılan EGG yöntemine ait değişkenler temelinde değerlendirme yapılarak sonuca ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmamızda yapılan analiz süreci sonunda, Orta Anadolu Abdal Şarkıcılığı'nda Şarkıcı Formantı'nın mevcut olmadığı ve Abdal Şarkıcıların bütün bir şarkı söyleme ses alanları boyunca sürekli bir şekilde göğüs registerini kullandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen spektral ve elektroglottografik veriler, bu konularda yapılmış çalışmaların ışığında söz konusu şarkıcıların fonasyon türü nitelikleri açısından da değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Bu değerlendirmeler sonucu söz konusu şarkıcılık türünün şarkı söyleme pratiğinde konuşma benzeri bir tını kullanımı ve baskılanmamış bir fonasyon türü ile karakterize olduğu ve vokal verimlilik açısından olumlu bir durum sergilediği görülmüştür. Orta Anadolu Abdal Şarkıcılığı'na ilişkin çalışmamızda elde edilen en önemli bulgulardan biri, bu şarkıcılık türünde şarkıcıların uzun süreli ve oldukça yüksek frekanslarda ve gür sesle, üstelik de normal konuşma tınısını koruyarak oluşturdukları şarkı söyleme pratiklerini, ayrıca ses sağlığını koruyabilecekleri bir söyleme biçimi ile taçlandırdıkları hususu olmuştur. Çalışmamızda varılan tüm bu sonuçlar, müziğin sosyo-kültürel bağlamı temeline vurgu yapılarak, Avrupa merkezli olarak dünyaya yayılan ?şarkıcılıktaki fonasyona ve böylece ses eğitim tekniğine ilişkin evrensellik? ve geleneksel şarkıcılık türlerine ilişkin patoloji söylemleri açısından da değerlendirilerek, geleneksel müziklerde ses eğitiminde ne tür bir yaklaşıma gereksinim olduğuna ilişkin yorumlara yer verilmiştir. Çalışmamız, Türkiye'de bu alanda hem konusu hem de kullanılan yöntemler açısından bir ilk olma özelliğini taşımakta olup, Orta Anadolu Abdal Şarkıcılığı'na ilişkin yapılan bu tür bir çalışmanın, oldukça büyük bir kültürel zenginlik ve şarkı söyleme pratiğinde büyük bir çeşitlilik taşıyan coğrafyamızda her bir kültür ve şarkı söyleme türüne yönelik olarak yapılması gereğini ortaya koymuştur.
In this study, EGG and voice recording data of seven tenor singers who sing folk songs in Bozlak genre and haven?t taken any formal training are analyzed in terms of various variables with respect to register and Singer?s Formant. Acquired data from this process has been evaluated statistically. The participant singers? techniques are based on Middle Anatolian Abdal Singing tradition. In this tradition, singers use shouting-like technique in rather high pitches due to the big and crowded performing stages that they sing and their consideration of singing as a tool in order to express their emotions against discrimination and contempt feelings of the society. Abdal and Opera singing show some similarities in that they both try to make the voice audible at the back rows of the audience. Singer?s Formant and head register phenomena form two basic elements which characterize opera singing. Singer?s Formant phenomenon, which is one of the basics of the technique that singers invented in order to make their voice heard over the big size of the orchestra in opera music in the beginning of the 19th century, brings a solution to this issue. The energy peak that the singer creates via unification of formants in spectrally low energized range around 3kHz in orchestral sound, enables the audience to hear the singers? voice even if the orchestra plays in high volumes. On the other hand, another element that characterizes opera singing is changing of chest register to head register roughly at F#4 or G4 in tenor voice category. Due to the paradigm which is related to modernization being transformed unto ?westernization? practice that is based on Ottoman inherited ?complex of being an Easterner?, when it comes to vocal training and vocal technique during the history of the Republic, it can be seen that opera singing technique has dominated this domain with its dynamics. It is because of this paradigm that, subjected technique has ruled over all practices of vocal training regardless of their genres. To put the main problem led by this situation briefly and clearly, it can be said that even our universities which give vocal training could not produce anything in folk music singing. To overcome this problem it is thought that it is important to understand related dynamics to a particular genre. In order to determine the approaches to Singer?s Formant and register phenomena in vocal training of Bozlak genre songs that characterize Abdal singing, this study is thought to be contributive in a guiding way by presenting data of two variables in subjected singing genre. In the analysis process of determining whether Singer?s Formant exists or not in Middle Anatolia Abdal Singing in this study, besides the criteria that regards the spectral location and dispersion of the formants, also the energy intensity in frequency domain which will be formed by Singer?s Formant in tenor voice category has been assessed by utilizing present theoretical methods and approaches regarding Singer?s Formant on related literature. In the analyses done on which register or registers have been used in Middle Anatolian Abdal Singing, again it is aimed to find conclusions by doing evaluations on the basis of Closed Quotiend (CQ) and Open Quotient (OQ) parameteres, belonging to the EGG method which is used widely in the literature. Furthermore, again an analysis process has been conducted on one of the EGG technique parameters, Closing Quotient, for gaining data about how the relevant singing style had a laryngeal motion and how the produced sound carried a characteristic on the criteria of being pressed. There has been conducted a two-phase study process for gaining the data. In the first phase, vowels which singers isolatedly produce in various pitches, speaking text and a folk song in Bozlak style have been recorded in a professional recording studio. In the second phase, Abdal singers applied the same actions they did in the studio, in the hospital while they connected to the EGG machine. Whereas the studio recordings are used on spectral analyses about the Singer Formant, EGG data are used in the electroglottographic analyses on the phenomenon of register. The spectrographic analyses have been done with the Multi-Speech Model 3700 Program and the electroglottographic analyses on the register phenomenon have been done with the KayPENTAX-CSL Model 4500 Real Time EGG Analysis program. After the process of analysis in the study, it has been found out that the Abdal singers do not possess a Singer Formant and in all singing voice range they are using chest register. It is seen that this finding corresponds to various data of different studies on traditional music singing styles in the literature. It is possible to point out that statements in the literature on the lack of the Singer Formant phenomenon (which the opera singing style has generated for reducing worries of being hearable), in non-opera singing styles, has been literally valid also considering our study. According to the explanation in the literature, there are four basic arguments about the lack of the Singer Formant in non-opera singing styles such as they are using the amplification systems; the importance of the comprehensibility of the text; the notion that the Singer Formant is a product of a certain style (opera) singing education technique and process; and that the timbral characteristics belonging to the relevant music styles, namely the sound, is seriously lost if the Singer Formant is used. Similar to opera singing the singers in our study use their style of singing (that produced in conditions with no amplification system), on circumstances where they also use amplification systems today. It is possible to state that the fundamental cause of this is the potential of traditions, that formed for certain needs, to addition to the relevant culture as an ?aesthetic? aspect. The spectral and electroglottographic data gained through the study has been evaluated in light of the studies done on this topic, considering the phonation form characteristics of the relevant singers. In consequence of these evaluations, it has been seen that the relevant singing style has been characterized by a speech-like timbre use and un-pressed phonation form and that it is presenting a positive case with regard to the vocal efficiency. One of the most important findings in our study about Middle Anatolian Abdal Singing is the following. In this singing style, although singers tend to sing in longer durations on rather higher pitch and loudly, even protecting the timbre of normal speaking, no pathological case emerges in their voices. There are findings which make us think that there is the notion that the positive situation on the health of the vocal folds found in Abdal singers, is accompanied by a vertical elevation in the larynx during the higher pitches in singing. The decrease in the amplitude of vocal folds oscilation caused by the laryngeal elevation, increases the closing time of vocal folds by diminishing the force which moves the vocal folds in the direction of adduction, thus increasing the CIQ value. In our study, it is possible to state that the rise of the CIQ value accompanying the pitch rise, may optimize the increase on the collision stress which can happen between vocal folds when pitch rises, thus minimizing the risk of pathology. All these results of our study have been evaluated considering the European-centered discourse of ?universalism of voice teaching technique? and ?pathology? in traditional singing styles, and accompanied by comments on what kind of an approach is needed in voice teaching in traditional musics Our study, being the first in Turkey both with its topic and with the methods utilized, emphasizes that this kind of a study made on Middle Anatolian Abdal Singing could be conducted on any kind of culture and singing style, considering our geography with a rather rich cultural environment and singing practices.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (PhD) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 2012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/12487
Appears in Collections:Müzikoloji ve Müzik Teorisi Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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