Kişisel özelliklere göre jenerasyon belirlenmesi ve iş beklentilerinin karşılaştırılması

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Tarih
2020-06-13
Yazarlar
Uğurluoğlu, Burcu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Günümüzde teknolojik gelişmelerin beraberinde getirdiği koşullara paralel olarak sosyal ve çalışma hayatınının dinamikleri hızlı bir dönüşüm göstermektedir. Dönüşümün temel sebeplerinden birisi dengeye yeni katılan ve beklentileri bulundukları dünya koşullarına göre şekillenen bireylerdir. Dönüşümün beraberinde getirdiği dinamikleri başarılı bir şekilde yönetmek isteyen şirketler, büyüklüğüne ve faaliyet gösterdiği alana bakılmaksızın, varlıklarını sürdürebilmek adına sistemin önemli bir parçası olan bireylerin sistem üzerindeki etkilerini kabul ederek onlara beklentilerine uygun ortamları sağlamalıdırlar. Bu doğrultuda, bir işletme bünyesinde çalışan farklı kuşak bireylerin beklentilerinin doğru şekilde belirlenerek bireyler arası farklılıkların yönetim anlayışına yansıtılması, yönetim ve organizasyon alanında temel araştırma konularından bir tanesidir. Bu çalışma kapsamında, öncelik olarak kuşakların gruplandırılmasındaki düşünce farklılıkları göz önünde bulundurularak geçmişten günümüze kadar tanımlanmış olan kuşakların karakteristik özellikleri ile ilgili literatür taraması yapılmıştır. Literatür taraması sonrasında internet ortamında 408 kişinin katılımı ile yapılan demografik bilgilerin doldurulması, üçer önermenin bulunduğu 15 kuşak belirleme ve 33 iş beklentisi sorusundan oluşan anket sayesinde kişileri yaş gruplarından ziyade kişisel özelliklerine göre kuşak gruplarına ayrıştırma yoluna gidilmiş ve kuşaklar arası iş beklentilerinin farklılaştığı faktörler incelenmiştir. Demografik bilgilerin doldurulması ve üçer önermenin bulunduğu 15 kuşak belirleme sorusundan oluşan ilk bölüm kapsamında, kişilerin sahip oldukları bireysel özelliklere göre kuşak atamaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Maloni, Hiatt ve Campbell(2019) tarafından yapılan "Understanding The Work Values of Gen Z Business Students" çalışmasındaki faktörler referans alınarak hazırlanan ve 33 sorudan oluşan ikinci bölüm kapsamında ise beşli Likert ölçeği metodu ile iç kazanım, dış kazanım, yönetsel, sosyal, yardım, boş vakit ve istikrar olmak üzere 7 faktör üzerinde durularak ilk bölümde belirlenen kuşakların iş beklentileri incelenmiştir. Her iki bölümden elde edilen çıktılara IBM SPSS Statistics 20 paket programı içerisinde yer alan korelasyon, normal dağılım, güvenilirlik analizi ve ardından doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri uygulanarak, faktörler arasındaki ilişkiler elde edilmiştir. Daha sonrasında ANOVA yapılarak kuşaklar arası farklılıklar belirlenmiştir. Analiz sonuçları incelendiğinde doğum yılına göre : X kuşağı olması gereken bireylerin %36 kadarının Y kuşağı, %2 kadarının Z kuşağı; Y kuşağı olması gereken bireylerin %15 kadarının X kuşağı, %14 kadarının Z kuşağı; Z kuşağı olması gereken bireylerin %9 kadarının X kuşağı, %36 kadarının Y kuşağına atandığı gözlemlenmiştir. Böylece, katılımcılar yaş gruplarına göre kuşaklara atanmak yerine, ortaya koydukları bireysel özelliklerine göre gruplandırılmışlardır. Hem yaşlarına hem de kişisel özelliklerine göre gruplanan kuşakların iş beklentisi faktörleri ayrı ayrı incelendiğinde de paralel beklentilerin çıktığı gözlemlenmiştir. Bu çıktılara göre kişisel özellikler dikkate alınarak kuşakların gruplaması yapıldığında, iş beklentileri özelinde iç kazanım, yönetsel ve istikrar faktörlerinde kuşaklar arası anlamlı bir farklılık çıkarken dış kazanım, sosyal, yardım ve boş vakit faktörlerinde kuşaklar arası farklılar çıkmamıştır. İş beklentileri faktörlerindeki farklılıklar incelendiğinde, iç kazanım faktörleri özelinde X ile Y ve X ile Z kuşağı bireyler arasında X kuşağı bireylerden; Y ile Z kuşağı bireyler arasında Y kuşağı bireylerden kaynaklı anlamlı farklılıkların olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Yönetsel faktörler özelinde X ile Z kuşağı bireyler arasında X kuşağın bireylerden kaynaklı anlamlı farklılıkların olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Son olarak istikrar faktörü özelinde X ile Y kuşağı bireyler arasında Y kuşağı bireylerden; X ile Z kuşağı bireyler arasında Z kuşağı bireylerden kaynaklı anlamlı farklar olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Bütün bu sonuçlardan yola çıkarak; çalışma hayatında bireylerin beklentilerini doğru anlayabilmek ve bu beklentilere cevap verebilmek adına kuşak gruplamaları yapılırken, bireyleri doğum yıllarına göre sınıflandırmaktan ziyade taşıdıkları kişisel özelliklere göre sınıflandırmanın daha uygun olacağı ortaya konmuştur. Kişisel özelliklere göre kuşaklara atanan bireylerin iş hayatından beklentileri incelendiğinde; iç kazanım, yönetsel ve istikrar faktörlerinde kuşaklara göre beklenti farklılıklarının olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda yönetim ve organizasyon çalışmaları yapılırken bireyler kişisel özelliklerine göre ait olduğu gruplarda değerlendirilmeli ve her grubun farklı beklentileri olduğu göz önünde bulundurularak bu beklentilere cevap verilecek çözümler planlanmalıdır.
Nowadays, the dynamics of the social and working life show a rapid transformation in line with technological developments. One of the main reasons for the transformation is the individuals who are new to the balance and shaped according to the new world conditions. Regardless of their size and area of activities, companies that want to successfully manage the dynamics that the transformation brings along should accept the effects of individuals who are an important part of the system in order to sustain their existence, and provide them with environments that meet their expectations. With the globalization that emerges as a natural result of advanced technological opportunities in every field, it will be thanks to its qualified employees that companies can produce faster, higher quality, cheaper and more different products compared to their competitors in today's conditions where diversity and competition are thrown. In this competitive environment, which intensifies every day, companies that want to stand out from their competitors want to benefit from the accumulation of their employees in the most effective way. For this reason, businesses should transfer their energy in a direction parallel to the company purpose by meeting the expectations of their employees in order to determine the competencies of the employees and increase their efficiency. Accordingly, it is one of the primary research subjects in the field of management and organization to determine the expectations of different generations of individuals and individuals working within a business and to reflect the differences to the management understanding. Within the scope of this study, a literature review was conducted on the characteristic features of generations defined from past to present, considering the different thoughts in the grouping of generations. It revealed the necessity of assigning individuals to their groups according to their personal characteristics in order to be able to group individuals with individuals that they have common values. Generations are known in the literature; Participants are prepared for the generation groups regardless of age, with propositions prepared according to their characteristics such as tradition, consuming habits, adaptation to technology, onlineism, loyalty, motivation to purchase, perspective against authority, duty awareness, risk taking, feedback, reward, struggle, learning, conflict, job description. After the literature review, the factors that differentiated between the generations and the expectations of the generations were examined thanks to the online questionnaire consisting of filling in the demographic informations, 15 generation questions with three propositions and 33 job expectations questions. Within the scope of the first section, which consists of 15 generation determination questions containing demographic information and three propositions, generational assignments were made according to the individuals' characteristics. Weighted ranking and scoring method was used to determine the generation group closest to the personal characteristics of the participants. Accordingly, the participants were asked to rank the suggestions of the questions posed to them according to their importance. The preference values obtained for each generation group were collected cumulatively by taking into account the suggestion rankings of each participant. The generation group, which has the greatest value among these totals, was chosen as the best alternative.Within the scope of the second part, which consists of 33 questions and based on the factors in the study of "Understanding The Work Values of Gen Z Business Students" by Maloni, Hiatt and Campbell (2019), extrinsic, intrinsic, supervisory, social, altruistic, leisure and stability factors were examined using 5-point Likert scale. After the assignment of each participant to the generation groups, correlation analysis to check the relevance of the relationship between the generation classification according to the birth year in the literature and the generation classification based on personal characteristics, reliability analysis to check the reliability of the data and the applicability of the factors, normality test to check the suitability of the data to the normal distribution. and factor analysis was conducted to check the sample adequacy criterion by grouping the related propositions. After all these analyzes; One-way ANOVA method was used to identify significant differences between the X, Y and Z generations, each of the seven job expectation factors, internal gain, external gain, managerial, social, aid, leisure and stability. It is seen that approximately 54% of the participants are women and 46% are women. It is seen that approximately 5% of the 368 participants accepted are composed of people aged 14-17. Following this, 13% of them are between the ages of 18-24, 51% are between the ages of 25-34, 11% are between the ages of 35-44, 15% are between the ages of 45-54 and the remaining 5% portion of employees are between the ages of 54-60. Approximately 66% of the participants are undergraduate graduates. In the second rank, graduate graduates come with a rate of approximately 21%. The remaining percentages consist of 11% high school and 2% middle school graduates. When the results of the analysis were examined, according to demographic characteristics: 36% of the individuals who should be X generation are determined as Y generation and 2% of the individuals who should be X generation are determined as Z generation; 15% of the individuals who should be Y generation are determined as X generation and 14% of the individuals who should be Y generation are determined as Z generation; 19% of the individuals who should be Z generation are determined as X generation and 36% of the individuals who should be Z generation are determined as Y generation. Thus, the participants were grouped according to their characteristics, rather than grouped according to demographic age groups. When the job expectation factors of the generations, which were grouped according to both age ranges and personal characteristics, were analyzed separately, parallel expectations were observed. When we look at the expectations in terms of internal gains by generation, differences are seen for each group according to generations. According to these outputs, when generations are grouped by considering personal characteristics, there is a significant difference between generations in terms of intrinsic, supervisory and stability factors in terms of job expectations, and no differences between generations in extrinsic, social, altruistic and leisure factors. When the differences in job expectations factors were analyzed, it has been observed that there are significant differences between the X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z generations due to respectively X generations and Y generations in terms of intrinsic. It is seen that the internal gain expectation in business life is higher than the X generation of the Y generation, and the Z generation is more than the two generations. It is extremely important that the new generation Z generation will be able to learn something in the workplace, develop new skills, will not lose the timeliness of the skills learned, will be able to see the results of the work, use the creative aspect and diversify the career path by differentiating their areas of expertise. For this reason, job descriptions should be created to encourage the individual to learn and add something rather than stable and operational tasks while making job definitions. Since the development of the person will increase its efficiency, it will also provide added value to the company. With these differences and developments, providing the opportunity to be appointed to different positions within the company over time will also delay the boredom of work and support in terms of not losing focus. In terms of supervisory factors, it has been observed that there are significant differences between the X-Z generations due to X generations. Generation Z often wants feedback and detailed instructions about his work. He also wants his manager to support his personal commitments, manage the team fairly, and share his own ideas freely. Questioning since the millennium generation, the desire to express their ideas fearlessly, ease of communication have become extremely important. For these reasons, they do not diverge from the scarcity of the willingness to request something from the managers of the X generation. While establishing their organizations, companies should assign people who may have leadership qualifications not only because they can do their job well, but also as managers. In this way, they can meet the expectations of the next generations and create environments where comfortable communication can be established instead of strict hierarchy and authorities. In terms of stability, has been observed that there are significant differences between X-Y and X-Z generations due to respectively Y and Z generations. It is seen that the X generation has higher expectations than other generations in terms of stability. Working in a company that has a good retirement plan, strong health and benefits, a safe future, helps in drawing a career plan, and the rules set for promotion are shared transparently, is more important for generation X than other generations. The results are in line with the generation X's commitment to the company and its skeptical nature. For generation Y and Z, this is not the priority. It can be said that the fact that there is no difference in terms of external gains results from the fact that all individuals want to obtain financial gains in return for their efforts. In the same way, it is seen that there is no different expectation from the generations in terms of the desire to make friends in the place where the individuals work, to do something together. It can be said that there is no difference between generations in terms of aid factor because of the wrong understanding of people not responding positively in terms of social responsibility, sharing and environmentalism. There was no difference between generations in the leisure factor. The time that flows fast in today's world, the multitude of things that can be done pushed people to focus on their private life. For this reason, all individuals look to companies that offer more flexible working conditions and more vacation opportunities.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans)-- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2020
Anahtar kelimeler
Jenerasyon belirleme, İş beklentileri, Generation determination, Business expectations
Alıntı