Mevcut Yapılar Kapsamında Yeşil Bina Sertifika Sistemleri Enerji Kriterlerinin Belirlenmesi İçin Leed, Breeam Ve Dgnb Sistemlerinin Karşılaştırmalı Analizi

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Tarih
2014-06-11
Yazarlar
Yetkin, Elif Gizem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Enerji tüketiminin artışıyla ortaya çıkan problemlerin çözümünde, enerji tüketiminde büyük rol oynayan binaların verimliliğinin arttırılması çalışmaları kapsamında ortaya çıkan “yeşil bina” kavramı güncelliğini korumaktadır. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda yeni inşa edilen yapılarda enerji verimliliği arttırma bilinci her geçen gün artmaktadır. Yeşil binaların sayısındaki artışla birlikte bu binaları değerlendirmek üzere hazırlanmış yeşil bina sertifikasyon sistemlerinin de sayıları artmıştır. Birçok ülke kendi çevre koşullarına göre ulusal bir yeşil bina sertifikasyon sistemi tasarlamıştır. Yeni yapıların yanı sıra özellikle mevcut yapılardaki enerji tüketimi ayrıntılı olarak üzerinde durulması gereken bir konudur. Bugün tüm dünyada yeni yapılarda uygulanmaya çalışılan enerji etkin tasarım yöntemleri ile başarılı sonuçlar elde edilebilmektedir, ancak mevcut yapılardaki enerji kaybı devam etmektedir. Bu sebeple toplam enerji tüketiminde önemli bir paya sahip olan mevcut yapılarda enerji verimliliğinin arttırılması gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda yeşil bina sertifikasyon sistemlerinin mevcut yapılar için hazırladıkları kılavuzları, tasarımcılar ve yatırımcılar için önem taşımaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında öncelikle yeşil bina kavramına değinilmiş ve yeşil bina değerlendirme sistemi tanımı ile dünyada uygulanan yeşil bina değerlendirme sistemlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Daha sonra mevcut yapıların enerji verimliliğini arttırma stratejileri açıklanmıştır. Yeşil bina değerlendirme sistemlerinin ilk örneği olduğu için BREEAM sistemi, dünyada en yaygın kullanılan değerlendirme sistemi olduğu için LEED sistemi ve Avrupa normlarında hazırlanmış ilk yeşil bina değerlendirme sistemi olduğu için DGNB sisteminin mevcut yapılar için hazırladıkları formatlarının enerji kriterlerinin, puan dağılımları, uygulama şekilleri ve gereksinimleri ayrıntılı olarak ele alınmıştır ve bu sistemlerin enerji kriterleri karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bu karşılaştırma sonucunda Türkiye’de geçerliliği olan kanunlar çerçevesinde çalışmaları devam eden ulusal yeşil bina sertifikasyon sisteminin mevcut yapılar için oluşturulacak formatında yapılması gerekenlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
With an increase in energy consumption resulting in energy consumption plays a major role in solving problems for increasing the efficiency of buildings as part of the emerging "green building" concept remains up to date. As a result of the studies carried out, increasing awareness of energy efficiency in buildings which each passing day.With the increase in the number of green buildings, has increased the number of green building certification system which has designed to assess these buildings. Many countries according to their environmental conditions and natural resources has designed a national green building certification system. All over the world, especially in developing countries, in proportion to population, energy consumption is increasing day by day. Building sector´s share, among final energy consumption, tends to increase. This increase in energy consumption adversely affects the environment and disrupts the natural balance. The most important reason is the greenhouse effect. Fossil fuels, used to cover the energy need, causes CO2 emissions which realized on the greenhouse effect. There are many other gases like CO2 which causes greenhouse effect and these gases are called greenhouse gases. In 2008, energy consumption in the buildings, used for settlement and commercial purposes, is in the amount of 28.3 mTEP which constitutes %36 of Turkey´s final energy consumption. Since 1980, the energy consumption has doubled, and this growth is expected to continue. Better living standards due to economic growth (increase in the usage of electronic devices and ventilation systems) and considerable increase in the amount of buildings tripled the energy demands of the accommodation units since 1990. Increase in the amounts of buildings, resulting in the increase of the need and demand of energy causes more CO2 emission, which ranked first among the reasons of global warming.  According to the researches, buildings are responsible for the 40% of global CO2 emissions. As the buildings are the most long-lasting and significant energy-consuming products in the economic sector and also as they cover wide range of products and services; they are considered prior ın the policies and programs about energy efficiency increase and climate change. In all developed and the EU countries, improving the energy efficiency in buildings comes first among the actions related to climate change mitigation. The energy consumed for heating and cooling in buildings, correspond to a large zone of the total consumption. For this reason, the reduction of energy consumption in buildings gained importance in many countries; reconsideration about energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption studies are started to be ımplemented according to the specıfıed frame of standards and regulations. Precautıons whıch can be applied during the design stage are determined for the new constructions, while systematic approaches are developed to improve energy efficiency of the existing buildings.   With the development of ecological awareness a large number of studies are being carried out, to reduce the negative effects of the construction industry to the environment. The construction sector, in order to decrease negative effects to the environment, has been directed to ecological building, With the start of this application, ecological, energy and assessment implementations are evaluated and to evaluate the buildings in the context of the sustainability criterias, green building rating systems are developed. Many countries are place emphasis on the green building assessment systems, these systems are created according to the characteristics and geographic locations qualifications of their country. Green building assessment systems usage is swiftly increase in developed and developing countries. In developing countries, government should raise awareness of these subjects among material producers and investors in the structure of the industry. The government should support studies and applications which are on topics such as sustainable energy systems and ecofriendly materials. Sustainability assessment systems for buildings, the construction sector in these countries and in improving the environmental performance of existing housing stock will play a major role. There are many certification systems in the world. Almost every developed countries have developed on the criteria of this standards constitute certification systems as well as their own building codes. Some of these voluntary, some mandatory and many of them are under the encouragement of local and national governments. The most common certification systems developed and applied by different countries are; BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), the DGNB (Deutshe Gesellschaft fur Nachhaltiges Bauen e.V.), Greenstar (Enviromental Raiting System for Buildings), Casbee (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency). The implementation of energy efficient building strategies is one of the major steps of the conservation of energy in new buildings and therefore, green building certification system has started to be applied first to the new buildings. During the design process of a new building the implementation of the passive systems in the principle of the chosen certification system brings successful results. Green building systems, together with the development of technology, has an updated, changing and developing structure. In this development process, many issues have been improved and the certification systems have been divided into different sections according to the scope of the principles of assessment. Energy consumption of existing buildings is as important as new structures are and this issue that needs to be addressed in detail. Today, all over the world that are being implemented in new buildings with energy efficient design methods can be obtained successful results, but the current structure of the energy-loss continues. For this reason, having a significant share of total energy consumption in existing structures, it is necessary to increase the energy efficiency.For this reason, a significant share of total energy consumption, energy consumption in existing structures have been investigated and it is necessary to improve energy efficiency. In this context, the green building certification system that guides prepare for the existing structures which is important for designers and investors. The scope of work are addressed primarily to the concept of green building and definition of green building rating systems which are using in the world. Then the strategy of increasing the energy efficiency of existing buildings are described.  In this issue  focus on, BREEAM which is the first green building rating system and LEED which is the world's most widely used evaluation system and DGNB which is the first green building rating system European norms prepared. This green building systems, existing structures guide’s are the energy of intra-prepared criteria, score distributions, application forms and requirements are discussed in detail and a comparative analysis of these systems is energy criteria. As a result of this comparison valid legal regulations in Turkey within the framework of the ongoing work of the national green building certification system will be created for existing structures aimed to determine the format needs to be done.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Yeşil Bina, Yeşil Bina Değerlendirme Sistemleri, LEED, BREEAM, DGNB, Green Building, Green Building Assessment System, LEED, BREEAM, DGNB
Alıntı