Değişim yönetimi'nin incelenmesi ve kuramsal bir modelin geliştirilmesi

dc.contributor.advisor Soysal, Ataç tr_TR
dc.contributor.author Erkmenol, Adnan tr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID 39884 tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Endüstri Mühendisliği tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Industrial Engineering en_US
dc.date 1994 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-10T11:34:52Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-10T11:34:52Z
dc.date.issued 1994 tr_TR
dc.description Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994 tr_TR
dc.description Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1994 en_US
dc.description.abstract Yenilik getirici (innovative) şirket, ürünlerinin yarısından fazlasını, ortalama ekonomik ömür sürelerinin yarısındaki bir zaman diliminde geliştiren veya yenileştiren, aynı zamanda da karlılığını muhafaza eden bir kuruluş olarak tanımlan maktadır. Prahalad ve Doz, bir kuruluşun yöneticilerinin ekonomik, teknolojik ve politik fır satları göz önünde tutarak, şirketlerinin yenilik ve değişim potansiyellerini, harekete geçirmeye yetenekli olmaları gerektiğini ifade etmektedirler. Buna göre yenilik ve değişimin devamlı bir süreç olması lazımdır. Yenilik ve değişim terimleri yeni mamuller, yeni pazarlar, yeni teknolojiler, yeni üretim süreçleri, kazanılan yeni beceri ler ve yeni organizasyonel yapılar gibi kuruluşun bütün yönlerini kapsamaktadır. Değişimin yönetimi konusunda pek çok yapıtların sahibi ve Harvard Üniversitesi Or ganizasyonel Davranış profesörü John P. Kotter, Harvard Business Review dergisinin Mayıs 1990 tarihli sayısında "Liderler Gerçekten Ne Yaparlar?" yazısında özetle şöyle demektedir : "Liderlik yöneticilikten farklı bir şeydir. Ancak bu birçoklarının bu kavramı "mistik, karizma veya diğer egzotik kişisel niteliklerin bir karışımı gibi düşünceleri ile hiç bir ilgisi yoktur. Gerçekte Liderlik ve Yöneticilik birbirinden farklı fakat yek diğerini tamamlayan iki eylem sistemidir. Herbirinin kendilerine özgü fonksiyon ve karateristik faaliyetleri vardır. Gittikçe karmaşık ve belirsizliklerle dolu iş hayatımızda başarı için her ikisine de ihtiyaç vardır. Her ne kadar günümüzün büyük kuruluşları liderlere sahip olmak için çeşitli gayretler göstermekte iseler de gerçek meydan okuma, kuvvetli liderliği kuvvetli yöneticilikle birbirini dengeleyerek kombine etmektir. Kuşkusuz herkes hem liderlik etmede ve hem de yöneticilik yapmada aynı derecede becerili olamaz, tleri görüşlü kuruluşlar bu iki niteliklere sahip adamlarını değer lendirerek büyük gayretlerle onları çalışma ekip veya takımlarının bir parçası yaparak kullanmaktadırlar. Bu gibi kuruluşlar Lider-Yöneticileri geliştirme gayretlerini üst kademe yöneticileri arasından seçtikleri yetenekli personeline uygulamaktadırlar. Vrakking W.J. "[lie Innovative Organization', Long Rage Planning Vol. 23 No.2 pp 9-4-I02.I l>9() ** Pralahad, C.K., Doz, Y.L., ( 1 987), I he Multinational Mission, I"he Press, New York Ml Yöneticilik ile liderlik arasındaki fark şudur : i) Yöneticilik, karmaşık ve kompleks işlerin üstesinden gelmektir. Uygulama ve yöntemleri 20. yüzyılın kuruluşlarının doğması ve meydana gelmesine neden ol muştur. İyi bir yönetime sahip olmayan karmaşık kuruluşlar, yaşabilmelerini tehdit eden kaosa doğru sürüklenirler. İyi bir yönetim ürünlerinin kalite ve karlılık gibi kilit boyutlarına bir düzen ve devamlılık getirir. ii) Liderliğe gelince, yöneticiliğin aksine çabalan değişimin üstesinden gelmektir. Son yıllarda bu kavramın büyük önem kazanmasının önemi dünyamız iş hayatının git tikçe daha rekabet ve belirsizlikler altında bir nitelik kazanmasıdır. Süratle değişim gösteren teknoloji, uluslararası rekabetin gittikçe büyümesi, pazarlarda meydana gelen dalgalanmalar, sermaye yoğun endüstrilerin atıl kapasiteleri, dalgalanan bir petrol karteli, hisse senedi korsanlıkları ve çalışan işgücünün demografik değişik likleri, bir çok faktörlerle birlikte bu değişimde etki yapmıştır. Bu yeni ortamda yaşayabilme ve etkinlikle rekabet edebilme büyük değişimlere gittikçe daha fazla ihtiyaç göstermektedir. Daha çok değişim daima daha fazla liderliğe ihtiyaç duyurmaktadır. Yenilik ve Değişim Yönetimi bir kuruluşun bütün insan kaynaklan, organizasyonel yapısı, know-how esnekliği, fonksiyonlannın yönlendirilmesi gibi potansiyellerini tayin eden pek çok faktöre bağlıdır. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye ve dış ülkelerden başanlı olmuş pek çok kuruluşun örnek ve modelleri verilmiş olup, değişim ve yeniliklerin gerçekleşmesinde uyguladıktan yön temler ve özellikle merkezi bir rol üstlenmiş olan etkin liderliğin incelenmesini ya parak bir teorinin ve modelin kurulması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın son bölümünde konunun beşeri yönünü tamamlamak üzere aynca Değişimin Yönetimi'nde etkinleştirmede bir Stratejik Yönetim Karar Destek Sistemi Modeli'nin kurulmasına ve bu model ile kuruluşun Rekabet Gücü'nü saptamada bir modelin oluşturulmasına çalışılmıştır.  tr_TR
dc.description.abstract The need for an improved Management of Innovation and Change is paramount. Although there are not many analytical approaches in the field of management, the need for it is a question of survival in today's fast changing world. I have focused so far on the economic necessity for companies to keep the question constantly in mind: How to become innovative and how to remain innovative ? Efforts have been made to answer this question largely in practice and somewhat in theory. Innovation and change is any renewal, designed and realized that strengthes the or ganization's position against its competitors, and which allows a long-term competi tive advantage to be maintained. Alternatively it is creating something new which fulfills a certain goal. This definition emphasizes a process starting with the generation of new ideas and decision making therefrom, leading to something useful, as the basis of innovation and change. Plenty of people recognize the importance of the subject, but do not necessarily act upon it. Because they are not always motivated exclusively by economic factors. In novation and change can be new to a company, to an industry, to a nation, or to the world. In this thesis the focus is given oh innovation and changes in a company. The economic and technological outlook calls for continuous change. An innovative company is one that improves or innovates more than 50 per cent of its products in half the average life cycle, while staying in profit. Prahalad and Doz state that an organization's managers should be able to respond to economic, technological and political opportunities, and direct an organization's in novative potential towards them. The economic and technological outlook calls for continuous innovation and change conditions set by minimum quantity, technology and global distribution are the eco nomic background against which those our businesses which produce items for the world market will increasingly have to work. As for the political perspective, government interventions in the competitive process, sometimes catalysts, sometimes inhibitors, cause more and interference in businness' economic calculations and pose a challange for anyone seeking to take an innovative path. XIV Useful Innovation Strategy Figure - 1 : Innovation Strategy The interplay of economic and political motives shows managers where the strategic options for their businesses lie, but it is the quality of organization that determines whether these opportunities can be used. The term innovation and change is usually linked to the creation of new products. In novation energies should be directed to all aspects of organization's products, mar kets, technology, production process, and attitudes as well as organizational innova tion in very broad sense. There are two kinds of innovation and change process : the classical approach and the modern. In the classical approach we see individuals making their own plans and passing on their results to the next link in the chain of people who must make progress. It is an unchanging process. Success is more or less accidental, and depends for its emer gence on all the linked sectors happening to be working well. In the modern approach we recognize that every aspect of innovation or change must become predictable. This implies setting a feasible deadline in the early stages, and binding the different sectors of company together in a "multi-team approach." Such a process is adjusted continually to suit demands on the market and to techno logical possibilities without being at the mercy of either force. A model for reforming innovation and change management can be drived what the main factors in successful management of innovation and change processes are. These factors determine a company's potential as shown in Figure 3. XV Figure - 2 : Classical and modern approach for innovation process This model expressly links innovation management to the ability to manage several areas successfully and simultaneously from one integrated management position (e.g. leading a business unit). These areas are : organizational conditions (vision, strategy and structure), technological resources, human resources and operational planning and control. This integrated approach is often present in theory, but absent in prac tice, and thus can substantially inhibit a company's innovation management potential. Current theories on leadership are either too general or too limited, directed at one of the main factors (in particular human resource management). This thesis by giving many examples of succesful companies from Turkey and abroad, aims to show the central role of effective leadership model in the realization of change and innovation management and its continuation for the life cycle of a company. Tom Peter's "Thriving On Chaos" published first time in 1987, won the New York Times Best Seller for eleven months, and reprinted each year until 1992 has gained the comments and eulogies from Press. In the opening chapter of the book, Tom Peters defines and gives the attributes of the successful firm to top the coming decade as follows : XVI R G A H ZA TIOH Organiz. Condition!.Vision.Strategy.Culture. Insight into markets and environment (KHOW-HOW *\ FLEXIBILITY J Technological Resources Insight Into. Available Technologies. Available Experience. Potential Tech. via Tech. Asse Innovation Management Human Resources. Team Composition. Effective Leadership. Career - Management. Productive Culture c COMMITTEMarr ) Operational Guidanci. Budget Planning and Selec. Projects. Communications. Performance Indicators Figure - 3 : Improving Innovation and Change Management ? flatter (have fewer layers of organization structure) ? populated by more autonomous units (have fewer central-staff, second-guessers, more local authority to introduce and price products) ? oriented toward differentiation, producing high value-added goods and services, creating niche markets ? quality conscious ? service conscious ? more responsive ? much faster at innovation ? a user highly trained, flexible people as the principle means of adding value In the Figure 4 Tom Peters summarizes a series of forces, arrayed on the left side of the chart, are interecting with one another to create a completely new context for doing business labeled "outcome". The outcome, he believes, can only be dealt with by firms which share a common set of traits, labeled "shape of a winner". XVll He conclueds by saying : " it is that shape and attainment of it in short order, which his book addresses. In the chapter 5 of his book titled by "Learning to love Change : A new View of Leadership at all levels, Tom Peters discusses THE NEW LEDAERSEQP, much on the same lines as explained in the chapter 6 of this thesis which deals with the "CONCLUSION COMMENTS AND INSTITUTIONALIZING" The summary of his views are as follows : The dictionary defines "axiom" as "a statement universally accepted as true. " Man agement, as it has been professionalized and systematized, has developed many axi oms over the past century. But in the past twenty years, the stable conditions (large- scale mass production) that led to the slow emergence of these universals have blown apart. So now the chief job of leader, at all levels, is to oversee the dismantling of dysfunctional old truths and to prepare people and organizations to deal with - to love, to develop affection for - change per se, as innovations are proposed, tested, rejected, modified and adopted. This set of prescriptions begins with that leaders must above all confront - master - a series of paradoxes - that is willingly embrace (test, learn about) across-the board challenges to conventional wisdom. Mastering the paradoxes and what they stand for requires the Three Leadership Tools for Establishing Direction : developing and preaching a vision which clearly sets your direction, yet at the same time encourages initiatives from everyone to per fect and elaborate the challenge that vision lays out; challenging interest by living the vision via your calendar (what you do - and do not - spend time on), which is the single most effective tool for establishing faith in the vision amidst otherwise debilitat ing uncertanity; and practicing visible management, for the purpose of preaching the message and enhancing the leader's understanding of the context where it counts - on the front line, where true implementation takes place. The principal challenge is to empower people (everyone) to take new initiatives - that is, risks (as they see it) - on a day-to-day basis, aimed at improving and eventually transforming every routine in the firm. There are four enabling leadership prescrip tions (Leading by Empowering People) as well : on becoming a compulsive listener, since listening (especially to those at the front) remains the truest signal that "I take you seriously"; on cherishing the people at the front - demonstrated in a host of ways, from pay scales to invitations to staff meetings; on delegating "authority" in a way that truly empowers, and vigorous and visible pursuit of bureaucracy bashing. The last two leadership prescriptions urge you to get directly on with the new "it" : proposes that everyone be evaluated on the simple but revolutionary question : "What have you changed lately?" suggests that leaders must epitomize change in every ac tion in order to create an overwhelming sense of urgency throughout the organiza tion. xvm As in the prior sections, leadership prescriptions, though separable, should be consid ered as a whole. While you can't do "everything at once" no one prescription makes much sense in a vacuum. It should be noted that a book with 700 pages gives many extremely valuable infor mation on change management in descriptive forms and do not include any analytical or quantitative approach. The research work conducted by university of Texas on change management which is given in Appendix A of this thesis has almost the same characteristics. Therefore it is my belief that much of the descriptive analytical works have to be made before some quantitative models developed. In the present Summary Section, I believe that story of General Electric and its CEO, would be a striking example to support and emphasize my concluding views in Chapter 6 of this thesis. The following are some of the comments and highlights on GE story : "Control Your Destiny or Someone else Will" is a Handbook for Revolutionaries written by Noel M. Tichy and Stratford Sherman, published in January 1993. It is the story of Jack Welch (CEO) how he is making General Electric, the world's most competitive company. The GE revolution shows that people can create radical organizational change from within, and they can do it while being financially succesful. GE remade itself while earning record profits for over a decade. Revolution is a call to leadership for all who have a desire to improve the world whether it be to revitalize a major corporation, a department within that corporation, or public sector institutions such as schools and hospitals. It requires taking on the dramatic challenge of creatively destroying and remaking organizations on a contini- ous basis. Revolution, driven by leaders with ideas and the heart and guts to bring them to life, will become a way of life. It's painful. In all facets of life, including busi ness, one must master change. Faced with increasingly difficult discontinuities, we must redirect life's emotional energies. Leaders of any institution, private or public, are in the business of helping each and every employee generate high levels of posi tive emotional energy as follows : i) Leaders Add Value to Their Organization The ultimate test of leadership is enhancing the long-term value of the organiza tion. For leaders of publicly held company, this means long-term shareholder value. At every level of the organization, people must understand how their role contributes to value. XIX v) Never Be a Bully But make the tough decisions that your situation requires. When you cause pain, show others compassion. Be hardheaded and softhearted. In order to complete the humain side of Change Management, the chapter 7 of this thesis deals with a quantitative approach providing a tool for managers seeking to conduct a management of change. We have called it "Strategic Management Decision Support System", which even tually leads to a model for establishing a Competetiviness Index for companies working in a variety of market places. This model needs to be improved for each individual company. However the fimde- mental ideas covering this system appears to be universal. XXll Generic Uncertainly Oil$5or$35abarrel 1 trillion Eurodollars $80 trillion in annual currency = trading/ gyrating exchange rates Casino society (junk bonds, availability of venture capital, strong market for initial public offerings, leveraged buy-outs) $1 trfflton in developing- countrydebt Mergers, divestitures, de integration, joint ventures Recoid business and bank failures (and \record start-ups) Technology Revolution Design (fast collection of customer data, reduced design-to manufacture time) Manufacturing (smaller, more flexible factories) Distribution (electronic linkages, power to customers) New Competitors FOREIGN Developed (e.g. Japan, Germany) Newly industrialized (e.g. Korea) Rapidly industrialising (e.g. Brazil) DOMESTIC Smaller firms resulting from the entepreneuiral explosion Downsized and re -integrated units withinbig firms, spun-of: ' elements from big firms Changing Tastes More options To w- wage-earner families More affluence (top third) Less affluence (bottom third) Saturation of markets for the commodities of yesteryear Demand for superior quality Outcome Demand for quality and fast response Uncertainty End of isolation More complexity Demise of mass (market and pro.) Cleaned- up portfolios and more competetive big firms business units More choices1 Market fragrae ntation"" Product and service explosion Midsize firms Shape of a Winner Quality-conscious Internationalist (even if small) Smaller (stand-alone, small withinbig) Gain sharing, participation, adding value through people Figure - 4 : Forces at Work and their apparent resolution XX v) Never Be a Bully But make the tough decisions that your situation requires. When you cause pain, show others compassion. Be hardheaded and softhearted. In order to complete the humain side of Change Management, the chapter 7 of this thesis deals with a quantitative approach providing a tool for managers seeking to conduct a management of change. We have called it "Strategic Management Decision Support System", which even tually leads to a model for establishing a Competetiviness Index for companies working in a variety of market places. This model needs to be improved for each individual company. However the fimde- mental ideas covering this system appears to be universal. en_US
dc.description.degree Doktora tr_TR
dc.description.degree Ph.D. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16210
dc.language tur tr_TR
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.publisher Institute of Science and Technology en_US
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Değişim yönetimi tr_TR
dc.subject Change management en_US
dc.title Değişim yönetimi'nin incelenmesi ve kuramsal bir modelin geliştirilmesi tr_TR
dc.title.alternative  The study of management of change and the development of an institutional model en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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