İklim değişikliğine uyumda yeşil sertifikasyonların yeri: Kırklareli -TOKİ örneği üzerinden bir değerlendirme

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Tarih
2020-06-15
Yazarlar
Begen, Büşra
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Günümüzde iklim değişikliği kavramı önemi giderek artan ve kentleri tehdit eden çevresel problemlerden biri olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Sanayi devriminden itibaren, ekonomik ve teknolojik açıdan gelişen kentlerin nüfusu giderek artmış ve bu artışlarla birlikte kentler büyüme göstermiştir. Nüfus rakamlarındaki artışın devam edeceği, 2030 yılına gelindiğinde dünyadaki nüfusun %60'ının yaşam yerinin kentler olacağı öngörülmektedir. 2050 yılındaki nüfusun yaklaşık 10 milyar kişi, 2100 yılına gelindiğinde ise nüfusun yaklaşık 11 milyar kişi olacağı tahmin edilmektedir (United Nations, 2018). Son yıllarda hızlı büyüme ve hızlı nüfus artışı sebebiyle kent ekosistemlerinde yapısal ve çevresel problemler ortaya çıkmaktadır. Dinamik yapıdaki kentler, sanayilerini, ekonomik ve teknolojik altyapılarını geliştirirken, çevresel açıdan zarar görmektedir. Bu zararların günümüzde yarattığı olumsuz etkiler ve gelecekte ulaşacağı kritik boyutlar öngörülerek, özellikle iklim değişikliği konusuna yönelik çözüm arayışları başlamıştır. İklim değişikliğinin etkileri üzerine yoğunlaşan uyum politikaları ile kentlerin daha sürdürülebilir hale getirilmesi gerekliliği giderek önemini artırmaktadır. Sürdürülebilir olma yolunda çeşitli çözümler üreten kentler, bir yandan benimsedikleri sürdürülebilir gelişme hedeflerine ulaşıp ulaşmadıklarını test etme ihtiyacı duymaktadır. Bu ihtiyaç sebebiyle, sürdürülebilir gelişimin ölçülmesine yönelik farklı ülkeler tarafından bina bazında sürdürülebilirlik derecelendirmesi yapan yeşil sertifikasyon sistemleri geliştirilmiş ve günümüzde giderek yaygınlaşan hale gelmiştir. Ortaya çıkışlarında bina ölçeğinde derecelendirme yapan sistemler, zamanla bütüncül değerlendirmeler yapabilmek amacıyla yerleşme düzeyinde sistemler de geliştirmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında, Dünyada ve Türkiye'de iklim değişikliği politikaları, iklim değişikliğinin kentler üzerindeki etkileri ve bu etkide en fazla paya sahip olan konut sektörü ve Türkiye'de konut üretiminin başat aktörü olan TOKİ ve uygulamaları irdelenmektedir. Sonraki aşamada kentlerde sürdürülebilirlik ölçümlerine yönelik geliştirilen ve yerleşme düzeyinde değerlendirme yapan yeşil sertifika sistemlerinden LEED – ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE -UD, DGNB-UD, Green Star Communities, Green Mark For District sistemleri ele alınmakta ve çeşitli başlıklarda karşılaştırılmaktadır. Alan çalışması olarak, Kırklareli-TOKİ yerleşimi öne çıkan sistem ile incelenmekte ve kriter değerlendirmeleri ortaya konmaktadır. Sonucunda, yerleşim düzeyindeki sertifikasyon sistemlerinin iklim değişikliğine uyum konusunda bir araç olarak yerelde kullanımına yönelik değerlendirmesi ve bir takım sorunların tespiti, ayrıca Türkiye'de geniş çapta konut üretim potansiyeline sahip olan TOKİ için iklim değişikliğine uyum konusunda yönlendirici bir bakış açısı sunulmaktadır.
Today, the concept of climate change appears to be one of the environmental problems that are increasingly important and threatening the cities. Since the industrial revolution, the population of cities developing economically and technologically has grown steadily, and cities have grown with these increases. It is predicted that the increase in population numbers will continue and in 2030, 60% of the world's population will live in cities. The population in 2050 is estimated to be approximately 10 billion people, and by 2100, the population will be approximately 11 billion people (United Nations, 2018). According to studies on climate change; the beginning of the deterioration in the natural structure due to human-sourced activities is based on the industrial revolution and the urbanization phenomenon that comes with it. Climate change in and around urban areas; it causes environmental problems such as drought, extreme weather events, precipitation, floods, landslides, water scarcity and air pollution. It is also expected to have important impacts on the built environment in terms of infrastructure systems such as water, electricity, sewerage, transportation, telecommunications and public services such as insurance, health, disaster and emergency aid. While the activities in the cities have critical effects on the environment and climate change, the events that may arise as a result of the change in the climate also threaten the cities significantly. Cities, which have a significant share in greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale, will further increase environmental problems along with the projected population and urbanization rates in the future, unless the necessary policies are developed and implemented. In recent years, structural and environmental problems have emerged in urban ecosystems due to rapid growth and rapid population growth. While dynamic cities develop their industries, economic and technological infrastructures, they suffer environmental damage. By looking at the negative effects of these losses today and the critical dimensions that they will reach in the future, searches for solutions especially for climate change started. The necessity of making cities more sustainable with the adaptation policies focused on the effects of climate change is increasing its importance. There are some basic requirements within the scope of adaptation to the increasingly important climate change. These; o developing a clean technology approach to reducing carbon emissions, o switching to alternative and renewable energy sources, o building green buildings and sustainable settlements While achieving international and country-specific targets and commitments for climate change, a search has emerged for approaches that allow solutions to problems. In such a case, the inclusion of green certification systems in the construction process of cities is seen as an effective tool to achieve the mitigation commitments and targets related to global climate change. Buildings in developed and developing countries have more than 40% of total energy consumption on a global scale. Greenhouse gas emissions from these countries correspond to one third of the rate in the world. Although it occupies 2% of the world as a surface area, it affects the structures, positioning of buildings and streets, and the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by a settlement and the buildings and streets in cities that hold half the world's population and are responsible for two thirds of total energy consumption worldwide. The situation in our country shows that high urbanization rate creates rapidly growing building stock. Building sector in Turkey, residential, commercial and public buildings and contains was responsible for 32% of total energy consumption in the country in 2016. On th other hand, the total building stock in the housing sector, which has a share of 86% in Turkey, TOKI is one of the most important actors in housing production. According to research, the building sector in Turkey is responsible for 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption in buildings is rising by 4% every year since 1990. Although efforts to ensure energy efficiency decrease the rate of increase in energy consumption of buildings, it is foreseen that the greenhouse gas emissions will continue to increase due to the increase in building stock, considering the general picture of the country. Therefore, creating sustainable buildings and settlements should be the main target in order to experience minimum damage from climate change. Green certification systems developed for measuring sustainable development are becoming increasingly common. Systems that scale the building scale in their emergence developed certification systems at the settlement level in order to make holistic evaluations over time. The main of these systems are; o BREEAM Certification System (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) that emerged in England in 1990, o LEED Certificate System (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) that emerged in the United States in 1998, o Greenstar Certificate System created in Australia, adapted from BREEAM Certificate in 2003, o CASBEE Certificate System (Comprehensive Assessment for Building Environmental Efficiency), which appeared in 2004 in Japan. o DGNB Certificate System (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Nachhaltiges Bauen) that appeared in Germany in 2009. In the study, climate change policies in the world and Turkey, effects of climate change on cities and the housing sector which has the largest share in this impact and TOKI is the main actor in the production of housing in Turkey, and their applications are examined. In the next stage, LEED - ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE -UD, DGNB-UD, Green Star Communities, Green Mark For District systems, which are developed for neighborhood sustainability assessment, are discussed and compared in various titles. As a result of comparing the green settlement certificate systems developed in order to reach sustainable development targets in various headings, it was found that they basically contain similar targets and criteria. Due to the impact of the geography they emerge and the unique nature of the societies, the weights given to these criteria differ. In LEED - ND and BREEAM Communities certification systems, land use and environmental oriented criteria come to the fore, while design and management criteria are more prevalent in Green Star Communities and DGNB-UD systems. The CASBEE UD system differs from others because it is a system with criteria aimed at reducing geological effects due to the geological structure of Japan. In addition, CASBEE-UD comes to the fore as a system that focuses on social infrastructure. While the environmental criteria in the Green Star Communities system are weak compared to other systems, social infrastructure decisions in the Green Mark for District system are weak compared to others. Areas such as climatic and geographical differences, energy production, management, variety of materials used, social lifestyles and cultural adaptation as well as the reasons for the criteria of certification systems to be included in variable weights also enable local specific applications. On the other hand, the criteria and features of the systems with varying weights can restrict the system's international acceptance and its application in different geographies. As a field study, the Kırklareli-TOKI settlement is evaluated with the prominent system and criterion evaluations are presented. In the criteria evaluations of the certification system, it is seen that the study area generally meets the criteria in the Neighborhood Texture and Design category and does not comply with the criteria related to Green Infrastructure and Buildings. While it has content that includes socially determined priority regions and transformation regions as Regional Priority loan options, it is expected to include and direct the climate options as it is developed to measure the goal of creating sustainable settlements. As a result, assessment of local use of certification systems in neighborhood scale as a tool for adaptation to climate change, determining of problems, and also a router perspective on adaptation to climate change for TOKI, has the potential of producing a wide range of housing in Turkey, are presented.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans)-- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2020
Anahtar kelimeler
Yeşil Sertifikasyon, İklim değişikliği, Kırklareli, TOKİ, Green certification,Climate change, Kırklareli, TOKI
Alıntı